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Military History: Most Popular Articles

These articles are the most popular over the last month.
What Were the Intolerable Acts?
The Intolerable Acts were a series of punitive laws passed by Parliament in the spring 1774, in response to the 1773 Boston Tea Party. Consisting of five parts, the Intolerable Acts included the Boston Port, Massachusetts Government, Administration of Justice, Quartering, and Quebec Acts. Causing outrage, the Intolerable Acts worked to push the colonies towards rebellion.
The Battle of Fort McHenry and the Birth of the...
The Battle of Fort McHenry was fought September 13/14, 1814, during the British attack on Baltimore. While British troops were checked at North Point on September 12, VAdm. Alexander Cochrane's fleet attacked Fort McHenry with the goal of taking the city. Enduring a 25-hour bombardment, Fort McHenry held and the British were forced to withdraw.
Final Victory: The Battle of Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown was fought between September 28 and October 19, 1781, after Gen. George Washington slipped away from New York and besieged Gen. Charles Cornwallis' army at Yorktown, VA. Supported by the French, Washington was able to compel the British to surrender after a brief siege. The Battle of Yorktown was the last major engagement of the American Revolution.
Ottoman-Habsburg Wars: Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto was a key naval engagement during the Ottoman-Habsburg Wars. Meeting in the Gulf of Patras, the forces of the Holy League succeeded in defeating the Ottoman fleet and ending Turkish expansion in the Mediterranean.
What Caused the Vietnam War?
The Vietnam War had its roots in French colonialism and World War II. Rebeling against French authority, Vietnamese forces were able to drive them from the country in 1954. Divided by the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was split north and south, with the United States supporting the democratic South Vietnam.
How the Stamp Act Set the Stage for the...
The Stamp Act of 1765 was passed by Parliament to raise money to pay for British troops in North America. Taxing paper products, the Stamp Act was violently opposed by the colonists leading to calls of
Road to Conflict: The Causes of World War II
The causes of World War II in Europe can be traced to the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I. As a result of economic hardship imposed by the treaty, as well as the Great Depression, Germany embraced the fascist Nazi Party. Led by Adolf Hitler, the Nazis took control of the country and began a program of expansion that culminated with the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 and caused World War II to begin.
World War II 101: A Brief History
The bloodiest conflict in history, World War II consumed the globe from 1939-1945. World War II was fought largely in Europe, the Pacific, and eastern Asia, and pitted the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan against the Allied nations of Great Britain, France, China, the United States, and Soviet Union. While the Axis enjoyed early success, they were gradually beaten back, with both Italy and Germany falling to Allied troops and Japan surrendering after the use of the atomic bomb.
Forging an Army: Winter at Valley Forge
Valley Forge was the encampment for Gen. George Washington's Continental Army during the winter of 1777/78. Arriving at Valley Forge battered after several defeats, the Continental Army endured a winter of starvation and privation. During the encampment, it was drilled and trained by the Prussian Baron von Steuben.
A Guide to the Falklands War
An overview of the 1982 Falklands War between Great Britain and Argentina. The Falklands War occurred after Argentine forces occupied the Falklands Islands in April 1982. Shortly thereafter a British naval task force succeeded in recapturing the Falklands and forcing the Argentine troops there to surrender.
A Bridge Too Far: Operation Market-Garden
Operation Market-Garden was conducted September 17-25, 1944, in an attempt to capture bridges over the Rhine. Market-Garden was devised by Bernard Montgomery and called for Allied airborne forces to be dropped near bridges in the Netherlands in conjunction with a ground offensive. While the first two sets of bridges were taken, the Germans held the third and Market-Garden failed.
Crossing the Delaware: Victory at the Battle of...
The Battle of Trenton was fought December 26, 1776, during the American Revolution. The Battle of Trenton occurred when American troops under Gen. George Washington crossed the Delaware River and launched a surprise attack on the Hessian garrison. A much-needed American victory, Trenton saw Washington capture most of the enemy force.
How Mehmet II Captured Constantinople in 1453
The Fall of Constantinople took place in 1453 after the Ottomans successfully laid siege to the city. The loss of Constantinople marked the end of the Byzantine Empire. The siege of Constantinople was conducted by Mehmet II and lasted nearly two months.
What Caused the Civil War?
The American Civil War was the result of a variety of causes ranging from slavery and states rights to industrialization and societal change. These causes touched off secession and hostilities.
A Short Introduction to the Vietnam War
Start here for information about the Vietnam War - a short, one page overview of the conflict.
Liberty or Death: Causes of the American...
The American Revolution was caused as a result of increasing colonial unhappiness with the policies of the British government. Following the French and Indian War, the British attempted to levy a series of taxes on the American colonies. The American Revolution was caused when colonial protests led to armed conflict.
Crusader King: The Military Exploits of Richard...
King Richard I the Lionheart was crowned King of England September 3, 1189. A gifted military leader, Richard the Lionheart is best known for his role in the Third Crusade against Saladin. Richard was killed on April 6, 1199, while besieging Chalus-Chabrol castle in France.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord: Prelude...
Fought on April 19, 1775, the Battles of Lexington and Concord were the opening actions of the American Revolution. The first shots were fired at Lexington as British troops from Boston passed through on their way to capture colonial military stores in Concord. After departing Concord, the British were attacked by colonial militia en route back to the city and suffered substantial casualties.
Everything You Need to Know About the War of 1812
The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain. Beginning in June 1812, the War of 1812 was the result of American anger over trade issues, impressment of sailors, and British support of Indian attacks on the frontier. Lasting two and half years, the War of 1812 saw American forces attempt to invade Canada while the British attacked American territory. Ended in early 1815, the war resulted in a return to status quo ante bellum.
World War II: USS Saratoga (CV-3)
USS Saratoga (CV-3) was one of the US Navy's first aircraft carriers and saw service during World War II. Serving in the Pacific, USS Saratoga took part in many of the Allied campaigns against Japan. USS Saratoga was sunk as part of Operation Crossroads at Bikini Atoll in 1946.
Historical Figures of the American Revolution:...
General Sir William Howe was a key British commander during the American Revolution. Howe led took command of British forces in American in 1775 and conducted successful campaigns against New York and Philadelphia. Howe resigned in 1778 and returned to Britain.
War on an Industrial Scale: The Battles of...
World War I saw some of the bloodiest battles ever fought. Beginning in 1914 with the attack on Serbia, the battles of the World War I ranged across the world from the France to Africa to Russia. These massive battles made famous places such as Tannenberg, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli.
Vietnam War 101: A Brief Overview
The Vietnam War traces its roots back to the country's division after the defeat of French colonial rule. American involvement in the Vietnam War began in 1965 following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. In 1973, US forces left Southeast Asia ending their participation and two years later Saigon fell to North Vietnamese forces ending the Vietnam War.
The Victor of Tours: Charles Martel
Charles Martel was the leader of the Frankish army at the Battle of Tours in 732, and played a key role in turning back the Muslim invasions of Europe. Charles Martel also founded the Carolingian Empire which was later ruled by his grandson, Charlemagne.
Leaders of the American Revolution: Marquis de...
The Marquis de Lafayette was a French noble who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Arriving in 1777, Lafayette became one of Gen. George Washington's most trusted subordinates. Returning home, he played a prominent role in the early phases of the French Revolution.
Guide to the American Revolution
The American Revolution was fought between 1775 and 1783, and was the result of increasing colonial unhappiness with British rule. During the American Revolution, American forces were constantly hampered by a lack of resources, but managed to win critical victories which led to an alliance with France. Following the American victory at Yorktown, fighting effectively ended and the war was concluded with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Battle of the Bulge: Germany's Last Major...
The Battle of the Bulge was the result of a massive offensive launched by the Germans on December 16, 1944. A desperate attempt to defeat the Allies in the West, the Battle of the Bulge saw the Germans mass their remaining strength in an attempt to capture Antwerp. After initial success, the German offensive was stopped and defeated by Allied troops.
Evacuation of Dunkirk: Miracle on the Channel
Fighting the Battle of Dunkirk, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to hold off the German advance in order to allow Allied forces to evacuate to England. Forming a defensive perimeter around Dunkirk, British forces held out long enough to allow a wide variety of vessels to rescue over 330,000 men. Though a defeat, the success of the Dunkirk evacuation allowed Britain to continue the war.
Wars of the Roses: Battle of Bosworth Field
The Battle of Bosworth Field was the decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses. Invading England, Henry Tudor gathered forces and clashed with King Richard III near Market Bosworth. In the battle, Richard attacked Henry's bodyguard and was killed in the fighting clearing the way for Henry to take the throne.
An American Icon: General George Washington
George Washington served as commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. A veteran of the French & Indian War, George Washington achieved mixed results in the field but became a powerful symbol of American resistance to Britain. George Washington later served as the first President of the United States.
French & Indian War: Battle of Quebec (1759)
The Battle of Quebec was fought across the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759. Led by Major General James Wolfe, British forces succeeded in defeating the French and captured Quebec a short time later. The Battle of Quebec was the decisive battle of the war in North America and resulted in the death of both commanders.
World War I/II: Lee-Enfield Rifle
The Lee-Enfield rifle was the standard service rifle of British and Commonwealth forces for much of the first half of the 20th century. A bolt-action, magazine-fed weapon, the Lee-Enfield saw extensive service during World War I and II. It is the second-most produced military rifle of all-time.
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points: A Path to Peace
The Fourteen Points were developed during World War I by President Woodrow Wilson. Wilson hoped the terms of his Fourteen Points, which stressed progressive ideas like self-determination and free trade, could serve as the basis for a peace agreement. The Fourteen Points were discussed and partially incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles.
French & Indian War: Fort Necessity &...
Built in 1754, by Lt. Col. George Washington, Fort Necessity was located in the Great Meadows in present-day southwestern Pennsylvania. Tasked with constructing a road through the wilderness, Washington had Fort Necessity built after encountering resistance from the French in May. Attacked on July 3, Washington was forced to surrender Fort Necessity the next day.
A Bloody Sideshow: The Battle of Gallipoli
The Battle of Gallipoli began when British Commonwealth and French troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula of Turkey adjacent to the Dardanelles. In a brutal campaign, Allied forces were unable to dislodge the Turks from Gallipoli's heights. After nearly a year of fighting they ended the fight and withdrew.
War of Jenkins' Ear: Prelude to a Greater...
The War of Jenkins' Ear was fought from 1739-1748, between Britain and Spain. Largely taking place in the New World, the war saw both sides attacking the other's colonies. The War of Jenkins' Ear was soon subsumed into the larger conflict of the War of Austrian Succession.
Holding the Line: First Battle of the Marne
The First Battle of the Marne was fought September 6-12, 1914, during World War I. During the Battle of the Marne German forces drove into into northern France and Belgium before encountering Allied forces along the Marne. In the week-long Battle of the Marne, the Allies succeeded in halting the German advance.
A Guide to the American Civil War
The Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865, and was the bloodiest conflict in American history. Pitting North against South, the Civil War had lasting repucussions that are still felt today. This overview will provide a brief history of the Civil War.
Battle of Midway: Turning Point in the Pacific
The Battle of Midway in early June 1942, marked the turning point of World War II in the Pacific. Fighting to the west of Midway, the US Navy attacked and sunk four Japanese aircraft carriers while losing only one of its own.
King Philip's War: 1675-1676
King Philip's War was fought in New England between 1675 and 1676. Beginning after a period of increasing tensions, King Philip's War saw King Philip (Metacomet) lead a Native American alliance against English settlers and other Native Americans. King Philip's War ended after King Phlip was killed in August 1675 though some skirmishing continued.
The Battle of Stalingrad: A Turning Point on...
The Battle of Stalingrad was a key battle on the Eastern Front during World War II. Advancing into the Soviet Union, the Germans opened the Battle of Stalingrad in July 1942. After over six months of fighting at Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army was encircled and captured. The Soviet victory at Stalingrad was a turning point on the Eastern Front.
Brother vs. Brother: Battles of the Civil War
The Civil War saw the largest battles ever fought in the Western Hemisphere. Beginning with the attack on Fort Sumter, the battles of the Civil War ranged across the country from the East Coast to the Mississippi River. These massive battles made famous places such as Antietam, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, and Peterburg.
A Desperate Defense: First Battle of Ypres
The First Battle of Ypres was fought October 19 to November 22, 1914, during World War I. The First Battle of Ypres took place as the Allies sought to protect the Channel ports and Germany sought to turn the enemy's flank. After heavy fighting during the First Battle of Ypres, the Allies succeeded in holding the town.
First Blood in Vietnam: Battle of Ia Drang
The Battle of Ia Drang was fought November 14-18, 1965, during the Vietnam War. The first major battle to involve American troops, Ia Drang saw air mobile US forces land in the Central Highlands. During the course of the fight, they endured heavy fighting before winning a tactical victory.
Persian Wars: Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Artemisium was fought in early August 480 BC in conjunction with the Battle of Thermopylae. The Battle of Artemisium was a naval engagement between the Greek and Persian fleets and saw fighting over a three day span. With the defeat on land at Thermopylae, the Greeks were forced to withdraw from Artemisium.
The Frozen Chosin: Battle of Chosin Reservoir
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir was fought during the Korean War after Chinese forces entered the conflict. Occurring between November 26 and December 13, 1950, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir saw badly outnumbered United Nations forces fight their way through Chinese lines to reach the port of Hungnam. During the campaign, UN troops endured extreme cold and hardship before successfully escaping.
What Caused the War of 1812?
The War of 1812 was the result of rising tensions between the United States and Great Britain during the early years of the 19th century. These included the frequent impressment of sailors from American ships, interference with overseas trade, and the belief that the British were encouraging Native American attacks on the frontier. As a result, the US declared war in June 1812.
The Longest Day: D-Day - The Invasion of Normandy
D-Day refers to the Invasion of Normandy which took place on June 6, 1944, during World War II. Landing on D-Day, Allied forces were preceded by airborne troops which dropped during the night. On D-Day, Allied forces gained a foothold in France from which they would advance to defeat Germany.
World War I: Causes
The causes of World War I can be traced to several factors which had been simmering for a number of decades. Among these causes of World War I were rising tensions over imperialism, increased nationalism, and a major naval arms race. These causes were brought to a head by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria which set in motion the series of events that led to World War I.
The Globe Afire: The Battles of World War II
World War II saw some of the bloodiest battles ever fought. Beginning in 1939 with the German attack on Poland, the battles of the World War I ranged across the world from the France to Russia to the Pacific. These massive battles made famous places such as Stalingrad, Midway, the Bulge, and Iwo Jima.
Who Was Lord Charles Cornwallis?
Best known for his role in the American Revolution, Lord Charles Cornwallis was a noted British military commander and colonial governor in the 18th and 19th centuries. Forced to surrender to George Washington at Yorktown in 1781, Cornwallis later served as governor-general of India where he worked to reform British colonial administration.
What Caused the Mexican-American War?
An overview of the roots of the conflict that resulted in the 1846-1848 war between the United States and Mexico
American Revolution: Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773, in Boston harbor. Angered by the imposition of the Tea Act, colonists in Boston refused to allow new shipments to be landed. On the night of December 16, angry colonists boarded three tea ships in the harbor and tossed crates of tea into the harbor. Known as the Boston Tea Party, this act contributed to the tensions that led to the American Revolution.
Island Hopping in World War II: A Path to...
During World War II, the Allies adopted a strategy of island hopping to move across the Pacific and defeat Japan.
Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox of the American...
American Revolution Brigadier General Francis Marion a.k.a.The Swamp Fox
Late Victory: Andrew Jackson and the Battle of...
The Battle of New Orleans was fought between December 23, 1814 and January 8, 1815. Unaware that peace had been concluded at Ghent, British forces moved forward to capture New Orleans. In several battles around the city, American troops, under Major General Andrew Jackson succeeded in defending the city.
World War II: German Panther Tank
The Panther medium tank entered service with the Wehrmacht in mid-1943. Possessing an excellent blend of firepower, armor, and speed, the Panther was one of the finest tanks produced during World War II. Used until the end of the conflict, the Panther strongly influenced postwar tank designs.
American Revolution: Battle of Monmouth
Fought in June 1778, the Battle of Monmouth was the Continental Army's first major test after the winter at Valley Forge. The last major engagement in the north, the Battle of Monmouth ended as a draw with the British withdrawing to New York.
What Was China's Boxer Rebellion?
The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-foreigner, anti-West uprising in China in 1899 and 1900. Largely caused by foreign influence in trade, religion, and politics, the Boxer Rebellion was suppressed by the Eight-Nation Alliance of Japan, Great Britain, the United States, France, Italy, Germany, the Austo-Hungarian Empire, and Russia.
Britain's Bloodiest Days: The Battle of the Somme
The Battle of the Somme was fought during World War I and lasted from July to November 1916. Attempting to draw German forces away from the Battle of Verdun, British forces battled to break through along a 12-mile front. When the fighting at the Somme ended, over 1.5 million casualties had been suffered.
World History 101: A Brief Overview of World...
World War I commenced in August 1914 after a series of events sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. World War I was the largest conflict in history to date, killed over 15 million people, and devastated large parts of Europe before its end in November 1918.
American's First Conflict: The Quasi-War
The Quasi-War was an undeclared maritime conflict between the United States and France. Fought between 1798-1800, the Quasi-War was the result of disagreements regarding the United States' neutrality during the war of the French Revolution.
Rebels and Redcoats: People of the American...
The American Revolution saw professional British officers clash with American leaders who were drawn from all walks of life or from overseas. While many American leaders of the American Revolution had militia experience others were new to military activities. Some American commanders proved successful while others proved less so.
Historical Figures of World War II: George Patton
General George Patton was a key American commander during World War II. A gifted athlete, George Patton saw service in World War I and helped pioneer mobile warfare. An outspoken leader, Patton proved gifted corps and army commander in North Africa and Europe.
Spanish-American War: Battle of San Juan Hill
The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1, 1898, and was a key engagement of the Spanish-American War. Having landing on Cuba, American forces sought to capture the port of Santiago de Cuba. Storming the San Juan Heights, they were able to begin a siege of the city which ultimately fell on July 17.
Burying the Dead
With the battle lost, the Prince was taken from the field and the remnants of the army, led by Lord George
The Paris Peace Accords and the Last Days of...
With the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973, the United States ended its direct involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1974, North Vietnam began offensive operations against South Vietnam. The Vietnam War ended in 1975 with the fall of Saigon.
The Horrors of Andersonville Prison in the...
Andersonville Prison was the most notorious prisoner of war camp of the Civil War. Constructed in southern Georgia, the 26.5 acre, open stockade received over 45,000 prisoners during its year of operation. Plagued by disease and starvation, 12,913 Union prisoners died at Andersonville.
How Horatio Gates Won the Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga were fought September 19 and October 7, 1777, in upstate New York. Advancing south, Maj. Gen. John Burgoyne encountered American forces south of Saratoga. Fighting two battles, Burgoyne was ultimately forced to surrender his army. The American victory at Saratoga was the turning point of the war and led to an alliance with France.
Texas Independence: Remember the Alamo
The Battle of Alamo was fought between Texan and Mexican forces between February 23 and March 6, 1836. Fighting for independence, the Texans fortified the Alamo and withstood a thirteen-day siege before Mexican forces overran the mission. Noted frontiermen Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett were killed in the fighting.
Bending Neutrality: The Lend-Lease Act
The Lend-Lease Act of 1941 was legislation that allowed the neutral United States to provide direct military aid to the Allies. The Lend-Lease act allowed the US to loan, lease, defense equipment for the duration of the war. Used extensively, it provided all typs of equipment from frontline weapons to vast numbers of trucks and railroad stock.
The Munich Agreement: How Appeasement Failed to...
The Munich Agreement was concluded on September 30, 1938, and saw the powers of Europe give in to Nazi Germany's demands for the Sudetenland. Meeting in Munich, British and French leaders elected to effectively cede part of Czechoslovakia rather than risk war. The Munich Agreement was part of a policy of appeasement which led Europe down the path to World War II.
The Yalta Conference: Setting the Stage for the...
The Yalta Conference was held February 4-11, 1945, and was the last wartime meeting between Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin. Meeting at the Black Sea resort of Yalta, the conference addressed many issues pertaining to the postwar world including the occupation of Germany, Soviet intervention against Japan, and the borders of Poland.
Who Was General Nathanael Greene?
A native of Rhode Island, General Nathanael Greene served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. After several years with General George Washington's army, Greene was given command of Continental forces in the South. Fighting a brilliant campaign, Greene reclaimed much of the Carolinas by the war's end.
Here's What You Need to Know About the Treaty...
The Treaty of Paris (1783) was the treaty which ended the American Revolution. Signed on September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris saw Great Britain recognize the independence of the United States. The Treaty of Paris also worked to clarify borders and other issues resulting from the war.
World War II: Messerschmitt Me 262
The Messerschmitt Me 262 was the world's first operational jet fighter. A groundbreaking aircraft, the Me 262 entered service in 1944. Though faster than Allied fighters, the Me 262 was not as maneuverable and never appeared in large enough numbers to have an impact on the war.
Remember the Maine: The Beginning of the...
Commissioned in 1895, USS Maine was an armored cruiser built for the US Navy. Sent to protect American interests in Havana, Cuba, USS Maine exploded on the night of February 15, 1898. The loss of USS Maine, coupled with tensions over Cuba, led the United States to declare war on Spain that April.
World War II: Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery,...
Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was a noted British commander during World War II. Taking command of Eighth Army in 1942, he won a critical victory at El Alamein before successfully leading it across North Africa, then across to Sicily and Italy. Commanding Allied forces in Western Europe, Montgomery masterminded Operation Market-Garden and fought until the end of the war.
French & Indian War: Causes
The French & Indian War began in 1754 as the British and French began to clash along the frontier in North America. The focus of these early engagements was control of Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio. The first campaigns of the French & Indian War saw British efforts against the fort as well as on Lake George and in Nova Scotia.
World War II: The Bridge at Remagen
The Bridge at Remagen was the first Allied bridgehead over the Rhine River in the closing days of World War II.
The Korean War
The Korean War was fought between 1950 and 1953 between South Korea and United Nations forces and North Korea and China. The Korean War began when North Korea invaded its neighbor in June 1950. Over the next three years, the Korean War saw both sides fight up and down the peninsula until an armistice took effect in July 1953.
Hundred Years' War: English Longbow
The English Longbow was devastating weapon on the medieval battlefield and was extensively used between the 13th and 17th centuries. Firing heavy arrows at long range, archers equipped with the English Longbow were capable of defeating charges by armored knights. The weapon is best remembered for its contributions to the English victories at Crecy (1346) and Agincourt (1415).
World War II: V-2 Rocket
The V-2 was designed by the Germans during World War II and was the world's first ballistic missile. Fired from mobile launchers, V-2 strikes hit Antwerp and London during the latter stages of the conflict. Following the war, the V-2's creators played key roles in the space race.
American Revolution: Siege of Charleston
The Siege of Charleston was fought March 29 to May 12, 1780, during the American Revolution. Landing near Charleston, British forces under Gen. Sir Henry Clinton laid siege to the city. The Siege of Charleston ended in a British victory when Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln was forced to surrender.
World War II: The Manhattan Project
The Manhattan Project was the Allied effort to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Led by Maj. Gen. Leslie Groves and J. Robert Oppenheimer, the Manhattan Project developed research facilities across the United States. The Manhattan Project was successful and made the atomic bombs used at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Graves of the Clans
At the end of May, Cumberland shifted his headquarters to Fort Augustus at the southern end of Loch Ness.
World War I: Zimmerman Telegram
The Zimmermann Telegram was sent in January 1917, by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to his ambassadors in the United States and Mexico. The Zimmermann Telegram instructed them to seek a military alliance with Mexico if the United States entered the war on the side of the Allies. Intercepted by the British, who sent it to Washington, the Zimmerman Telegram helped draw the United States into the conflict.
Military Terms: What Does 'Going Over the Top'...
: The phrase "going over the top" came into usage during World War I and referenced attacking infantry
American Revolution: General Thomas Gage
A veteran of the French & Indian War, General Thomas Gage commanded British forces in America during the opening days of the American Revolution. Appointed governor of Massachusetts in 1774, Gage's attempts to regain control of the colony led to the outbreak of fighting in April 1775. Later that year, Gage was recalled in favor of General William Howe.
What Were the Main Causes of World War II in...
The causes of World War II in the Pacific began following World War I when the Western Powers recognized Japan as a colonial power. In a quest for additional natural resources and to ease population pressure, Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937. These conflicts were condemned by the West, and pressure was exerted on the Japanese government to withdrawal. Rather than bow to the West, Japan launched attacked Western colonies causing World War II in the Pacific. Page 2.
World War II: Battle of Wake Island
The Battle of Wake Island was fought December 8-23, 1941 and saw the US Marines mount a heroic defense before being overwhelemed by Japanese forces. First landing on Wake Island on December 11, the Japanese were repulsed by the Marines. Reinforced, they returned on the 23rd and succeeded in taking Wake Island.
Leading the AEF: General John J. Pershing
A pivotal leader of the US Army in the early 20th century, General John J. Pershing was the leader of US forces in Europe during World War I and was a mentor for many of the generals of World War II. In addition, John J. Pershing was the only leader to achieve the rank of General of the Armies.
World War II: First Lieutenant Audie Murphy
Audie Murphy was the most decorated America soldier of World War II. Achieving the rank of first lieutenant, Audie Murphy received 33 decorations for his service in Europe. Audie Murphy won the Medal of Honor for his actions at Holtzwihr, France and later became a movie star.
Wars of Alexander the Great: Battle of Gaugamela
The Battle of Gaugamela was fought October 1, 331 BC during Alexander the Great's wars with the Persian Empire. Advancing east, Alexander encountered the army of Darius III in present-day Iraq. In the resulting Battle of Gaugamela, Alexander routed the Persians leading to the empire's fall.
World War II: Mitsubishi A6M Zero
The Japanese Mitsubishi A6M Zero was the primary fighter used by the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Highly maneuverable, the Japanese Zero outclassed most Allied fighters during the early years of the conflict. As the war progressed, the Zero found itself inferior to the new generation of fighters such as the F6F Hellcat and F4U Corsair.
Persian Wars: Battle of Salamis
The Battle of Salamis was fought in September 480 BC during the Persian Wars. Having been defeated at Thermopylae, Greek forces retreated to Salamis where they were pursued by the Persian fleet. Attacking the Persians in the Straits of Salamis, the Greeks won a stunning victory.
Persian Wars: Battle of Marathon
Occurring in August/September 490 BC, the Battle of Marathon saw an inferior Greek force defeat a much larger Persian army. Fought on the Plains of Marathon, the Greeks boldly attacked and caught the Persians in a double envelopment. Battling on three sides, the Persian ranks broke and they fled the field.
John Paul Jones: America's First Naval Hero
Born in Scotland, John Paul Jones served as a merchant captain before coming to America in 1773. Joining the new Continental Navy, Jones distinguished himself in a number of commands including as captain of USS Ranger. Given command of Bonhomme Richard in 1779, Jones captured the British frigate HMS Serapis. Known for his fighting spirit, he is considered one of the fathers of the US Navy.
Burning Through Georgia: Sherman's March to the...
Sherman's March to the Sea commenced on November 15, 1864, after the capture of Atlanta by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman. Marching to the port of Savannah, Sherman's men succeeded in taking the city on December 22. During the March to the Sea, Sherman's men conducted a scorched earth campaign to destroy Confederate resources in Georgia.
Crusades: Siege of Jerusalem
Lasting from September 20 to October 2, 1187, the Siege of Jerusalem saw Saladin retake the city from Christian forces. Led by Balian of Ibelin, the defenders fought desperately to keep the city, but were ultimately overwhelmed by Saladin's army. After several days of fighting, Balian negotiated its surrender and the Christians were allowed to peacefully leave the city.
American Revolution: Battle of Cowpens
The Battle of Cowpens saw American troops rout the forces of the notorious Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. Fought on January 17, 1781, the Battle of Cowpens featured a double envelopment by Brig. Gen. Daniel Morgan's small army which crushed the British. A key victory in the southern campaign, Cowpens ended a string of British wins in the region.
World War I: Second Battle of Ypres
The Second Battle of Ypres was fought April 22 to May 25, 1915 during World War I. Releasing poison gas, German forces attacked Allied positions with the goal of reducing the Ypres salient. In the resulting Second Battle of Ypres, the Allies gave ground but were able to hold the town.
World War II: Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44)
The Sturmgewehr 44 was the first assault rifle to see deployment on a large scale. Developed by Nazi Germany, the Sturmgewehr 44 was introduced in 1943, and first saw service on the Eastern Front. Though far from perfect, the StG44 proved a versatile weapon for German forces.
Muslim Invasions: Battle of Tours
The Christian triumph at this battle between the Carolingian Franks and the forces of the Umayyad Caliphat, stemmed Muslim expansion into Western Europe.
American Civil War: First Shots
The American Civil War first began when Confederate troops opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Following this attack, President Lincoln called for volunteer troops to put down the rebellion. The American Civil War began in earnest in July at the First Battle of Bull Run.
Clan MacKintosh at Culloden
The leaders of the Chattan Confederation, Clan MacKintosh fought in the center of the Jacobite line and
The Battle of Okinawa: How the US Advanced to...
The Battle of Okinawa was fought April 1 to June 22, 1945, during World War II. Landing on Okinawa, Allied forces met fierce resistance from the Japanese defenders. Lasting nearly three months, the Battle of Okinawa ended with Allied troops capturing the island.
Top Facts about Baron von Steuben
Baron Friedrich von Steuben was a former Prussian staff officer who served with the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Baron von Steuben is best remembered for training the army at Valley Forge. He later served in the Southern campaigns and was at the Battle of Yorktown.
American Revolution: Brigadier General Daniel...
Brigadier General Daniel Morgan was a famed American commander during the American Revolution. First seeing action during Siege of Boston, Daniel Morgan played a key role in the Battle of Saratoga. Given a command in the south, Daniel Morgan won a decisive victory at the Battle of Cowpens in 1781.
How the Gulf of Tonkin Incident Escalated the...
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident occurred on August 2 and 4, 1964, and saw US naval forces engage North Vietnamese patrol boats. While the attack on August 2 happened as reported, the second attack may not have taken place. As a result of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, President Lyndon Johnson was given as free hand in Southeast Asia by Congress.
Antietam: America's Bloodiest Day
The Battle of Antietam was fought September 17, 1862, during Lee's Invasion of Maryland. Battling near Sharpsburg, MD and Antietam Creek, Maj. Gen. George McClellan won a strategic victory but failed to destroy the Confederate army. The Battle of Antietam provided Pres. Abraham Lincoln the opportunity to issue the Emancipation Proclamation.
1600s & 1700s Military History Timeline
A military history timeline of the 17th and 18th centuries.
World War II: Consolidated B-24 Liberator
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was one of the principal heavy bombers used by the US Army Air Force during World War II. First flying in late 1939, the B-24 Liberator saw extensive service during the war and was also used for maritime patrols. One of the B-24's most famous raids occured in 1943, when the aircraft struck the oil fields near Ploesti.
World War I: The Christmas Truce of 1914
The Christmas Truce of 1914 has become one of the mythic events of World War I. A series of localized ceasefires, the Christmas Truce saw British and German soldiers stop fighting to exchange gifts, fraternize, and play games. Frowned on by both high commands, the Christmas Truce lasted only a few days before fighting recommenced.
World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower - A...
General Dwight D. Eisenhower led Allied forces in Europe during World War II. During the conflict, Dwight Eisenhower oversaw operations ranging from the landings in North Africa to D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge. Dwight Eisenhower later served as US Army Chief of Staff and was elected President of the United States in 1952.
The French & Indian War/The Seven Years'...
The French and Indian War began in 1754 as the result of colonial fighting between Britian and France. By 1756 the conflict expanded into the Seven Years' War which saw fighting across Europe and around the globe. Ending in 1763, the war cost France its overseas colonies in North America.
World War I: Sinking of the Lusitania
RMS Lusitania was a British luxury liner operated by the Cunard Line between 1907 and 1915. On May 7, 1915, Lusitania was torpedoed off the southern coast of Ireland by U-20 during World War I. Sinking quickly, 1,198 of Lusitania's passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. The attack on Lusitania sparked international outrage.
Battle of Verdun: Bleeding for the Western Front
The Battle of Verdun was fought from February 21 to December 18, 1916, and was a key engagement of World War I. Attacking the French positions around Verdun, German troops initiated a grinding battle of attrition. By the time the Battle of Verdun ended, over 700,000 had been killed or wounded.
American Revolution: Capture of Fort Ticonderoga
The Capture of Fort Ticonderoga took place May 10, 1775 during the American Revolution. Taking the garrison by surprise, American forces led by Colonels Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold swiftly overwhelmed the defenders. After the capture of Fort Ticonderoga, American troops took the fort at Crown Point.
American Revolution: Major General Henry Knox
Learn about Henry Know, who went from bookseller at the beginning of the American Revolution to serving as the United States' first secretary of war.
Weapons of World War II: The M1 Garand
The M1 Garand was the first semiautomatic rifle to be issued to an entire army. Developed in the 1920s and 1930s, the M1 was designed by John Garand. Firing a .30-06 round, the M1 Garand was the main infantry weapon employed by US forces during World War II and the Korean War.
Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz was one of Napoleon Bonaparte's greatest victories. Fought on December 2, 1805, Austerlitz is also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors as Russian and Austrian forces were led by Tsar Alexander I and Emperor Francis II. The French victory at Austerlitz ended the War of the Third Coalition and led to the Austrians signing the Treaty of Pressburg
Who Was Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto?
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was the genius behind Japan's early naval successes during World War II. After the attack at Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto was finally defeated at the Battle of Midway. On April 18, 1943, Yamamoto was killed when his plane was intercepted by American fighters near Bougainville.
Blood in Boston
The Boston Massacre took place on March 5, 1770, and helped lead to the American Revolution. The Boston Massacre saw a mob clash with British troops as part of a larger protest against taxation without representation. In the Boston Massacre, five civilians were killed.
World War II: Battle of the Atlantic
The Battle of the Atlantic took place between 1939 and 1945 during World War II. The Battle of the Atlantic saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Though German U-boats inflicted heavy losses, Allied naval forces ultimately won the Battle of the Atlantic.
English Civil War: An Overview
The English Civil War was fought between Parliamentarian and Royalist forces and began in 1642. During the English Civil War, Parliamentarian forces won key battles at Marston Moor and Naseby. The English Civil War ended in 1651 when Parliamentarian troops triumphed.
World War II: "Little Boy" Atomic Bomb
Little Boy was the first atomic bomb used against Japan in World War II, detonated over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
Leyte Gulf: The Largest Naval Battle of World...
The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a series engagements fought October 23-26, 1944, in the waters around the Philippines. During the fighting, the Japanese attempted to block the Allied invasion of Leyte through a series of naval battles. The Battle of Leyte Gulf ended in a massive Allied victory and effectively crippled the Imperial Japanese Navy.
A World War II Icon: M4 Sherman Tank
The iconic American tank of World War II, the M4 Sherman was produced in large numbers and served in all theaters. The M4 Sherman tank was a reliable, easily produced medium tank that provided invaluable service in supporting American troops. The M4 Sherman tank saw service with many nations during and after the war.
World War II: Republic P-47 Thunderbolt
The P-47 Thunderbolt was a key Allied fighter and fighter-bomber during World War II. The P-47 Thunderbolt entered service in 1942, and the fighter saw service in both Europe and the Pacific. Nicknamed
Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh
The Battle of Khe Sanh was fought during the first four months of 1968. Besieged during the Tet Offensive, the Marine base at Khe Sanh held out against heavy attacks by the North Vietnamese with the support of American air power. In April, Operation Pegasus was launched which ultimately relieved the garrison.
French & Indian/Seven Years' War Battles
The French & Indian/Seven Years' War was the first truly global conflict and saw battles fought around the world. Beginning in North American, the war spread to Europe and then to far-flung colonies. The French & Indian/Seven Years' War made places such as Quebec, Rossbach, Minden, and Plassey famous.
World War II/Korean War: Lieutenant General...
Chesty Puller was noted US Marine who saw service during World War II and the Korean War. During his career, Chesty Puller became one of the most decorated Marines in history. Seeing action at notable engagements such as Guadalcanal and Chosin Reservoir, Chesty Puller later retired as a lieutenant colonel.
World War II: Battle of Monte Cassino
The Battle of Monte Cassino was fought January 17 to May 18, 1944, during World War II. Part of the Italian Campaign, the Battle of Monte Cassino saw German forces initially halt the Allied advance up the peninsula. After four engagements, which included the controversial destruction of Monte Cassino Abbey, the Allies succeeded in breaking through and opened the way for the capture of Rome.
International Terrorism: The Entebbe Raid
After hijacking Air France Flight 139, the terrorists directed the plane to divert to Entebbe, Uganda where the Jews and Israelis were separated from the other passengers and kept hostage in the airport terminal. On July 4, 1976, a group of Israeli commandos landed at Entebbe and stormed the terminal, rescuing the the hostages.
Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was fought in September 9 AD in present-day Germany. En route to winter quarters, three Roman legions sought to defeat a rebellion led by Arminius. Attacked in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germanic tribes, the Romans were effectively destroyed.
Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive
The Tet Offensive was launched in January 1968, and redefined the Vietnam War. Though defeated by US and South Vietnamese forces, the Tet Offensive changed public perceptions of the conflict.
World War II: M26 Pershing
The M26 Pershing tank was developed during World War II for the US Army. Entering service in 1945, small numbers of M26 Pershings saw combat in Europe. The M26 Pershing was retained after the conflict and later saw battle during the Korean War.
Battle of Anzio: A Bloody Beahhead
The Battle of Anzio began on January 22, 1944, with Allied troops landing as part of Operation Shingle. Blocked by the Germans at Monte Cassino, Allied leaders hoped to outflank the Winter Line by landing further north at Anzio. While a beachhead was established around Anzio, it was soon contained by German forces. The Allies would not break out from Anzio until May.
Indian Wars: Lt. Colonel George A. Custer
George A. Custer first achieved fame as a cavalry commander during the Civil War. A reckless soldier, Custer was known for his personal bravery and willingness to attack the enemy. Following the war, he was assigned to the frontier and took part in the US' wars against the Plains Indians. George Custer was killed in 1876, after his men were overrun at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.
Iraq War: Second Battle of Fallujah
The Second Battle of Fallujah was fought in 2004. The process of clearing the city was slowed by booby-traps and improvised explosive devices.
Wars of the Roses: An Overview
The Wars of the Roses were fought in Britain from 1455 to 1485. A dynastic conflict, the Wars of the Roses saw the Houses of Lancaster and York struggle for the English throne. The Wars of the Roses ended with the triumph of the Lancasterians and the ascent of Henry Tudor.
A Shau Valley
The Vietnam War saw American and North Vietnamese forces clash for nearly a decade. This gallery includes a variety of images from the conflict in Vietnam from the troops on the ground to the war in the air. This photo shows operations in the A Shau Valley in 1969. Page 9.
American Revolution: Treaty of Alliance (1778)
Providing French support during the American Revolution, the Treaty of Alliance was critical to the United States gaining independence.
Mexican-American War: Battle of Chapultepec
The Battle of Chapultepec was fought September 12-13, 1847, during the Mexican-American War. Having fought a series of battles around Mexico City, American forces attacked Chapultepec Castle and the city gates. In a full day of fighting, the castle was taken and the city's defenses penetrated.
Gallic Wars: Battle of Alesia
The Battle of Alesia took place in the fall of 52 BC as Julius Caesar laid siege to the Mandubii settlement at Alesia in Gaul. Building an extensive set of fortifications around Alesia, Caesar beat off attacks from Vercingetorix's garrison as well as a relief army. The victory at Alesia effectively secured Gaul for Rome.
World War II: Tiger I Tank
The Tiger I was a famous tank produced by Germany during World War II. The Tiger was the first to mount the heavy 88mm gun. Used on all fronts by the Wehrmacht, the Tiger was a dangerous opponent, but complex and mechanically unreliable.
The French Revolutionary & Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars, and the French Revolutionary Wars before them, consumed Europe between 1792 and 1815. The Napoleonic Wars saw French forces battling various coalitions of European nations. Ending in 1815 with Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, the Napoleonic Wars saw the map of Europe forever changed.
Vietnam War: Battle of Dak To
The Battle of Dak To began as attempt by the North Vietnamese to destroy a sizable US force in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. This attack was disrupted by US forces and the three week Battle of Dak To ensued with American troops fighting to dislodge the North Vietnamese from a series of fortified hills and ridges. After heavy fighting, the Americans were able to win the Battle of Dak To and force the North Vietnamese to retreat.
The Pequot War: 1634-1638
The Pequot War was fought from 1634 to 1638 in present-day New England. The Pequot War saw colonists in Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and their Native American allies battle the Pequot tribe. After several battles, the Pequots were defeated and the war ended.
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