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Final Victory: The Battle of Yorktown
The Battle of Yorktown was fought between September 28 and October 19, 1781, after Gen. George Washington slipped away from New York and besieged Gen. Charles Cornwallis' army at Yorktown, VA. Supported by the French, Washington was able to compel the British to surrender after a brief siege. The Battle of Yorktown was the last major engagement of the American Revolution.
What Were the Intolerable Acts?
The Intolerable Acts were a series of punitive laws passed by Parliament in the spring 1774, in response to the 1773 Boston Tea Party. Consisting of five parts, the Intolerable Acts included the Boston Port, Massachusetts Government, Administration of Justice, Quartering, and Quebec Acts. Causing outrage, the Intolerable Acts worked to push the colonies towards rebellion.
Road to Conflict: The Causes of World War II
The causes of World War II in Europe can be traced to the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I. As a result of economic hardship imposed by the treaty, as well as the Great Depression, Germany embraced the fascist Nazi Party. Led by Adolf Hitler, the Nazis took control of the country and began a program of expansion that culminated with the invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 and caused World War II to begin.
Battle of the Bulge: Germany's Last Major...
The Battle of the Bulge was the result of a massive offensive launched by the Germans on December 16, 1944. A desperate attempt to defeat the Allies in the West, the Battle of the Bulge saw the Germans mass their remaining strength in an attempt to capture Antwerp. After initial success, the German offensive was stopped and defeated by Allied troops.
Forging an Army: Winter at Valley Forge
Valley Forge was the encampment for Gen. George Washington's Continental Army during the winter of 1777/78. Arriving at Valley Forge battered after several defeats, the Continental Army endured a winter of starvation and privation. During the encampment, it was drilled and trained by the Prussian Baron von Steuben.
A Brief Peace: The 1914 Christmas Truce
The Christmas Truce of 1914 has become one of the mythic events of World War I. A series of localized ceasefires, the Christmas Truce saw British and German soldiers stop fighting to exchange gifts, fraternize, and play games. Frowned on by both high commands, the Christmas Truce lasted only a few days before fighting recommenced.
What Caused the Civil War?
The American Civil War was the result of a variety of causes ranging from slavery and states rights to industrialization and societal change. These causes touched off secession and hostilities.
World War II 101: A Brief History
The bloodiest conflict in history, World War II consumed the globe from 1939-1945. World War II was fought largely in Europe, the Pacific, and eastern Asia, and pitted the Axis powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan against the Allied nations of Great Britain, France, China, the United States, and Soviet Union. While the Axis enjoyed early success, they were gradually beaten back, with both Italy and Germany falling to Allied troops and Japan surrendering after the use of the atomic bomb.
What Caused the Mexican-American War?
An overview of the roots of the conflict that resulted in the 1846-1848 war between the United States and Mexico
Crossing the Delaware: Battle of Trenton
The Battle of Trenton was fought December 26, 1776, during the American Revolution. The Battle of Trenton occurred when American troops under Gen. George Washington crossed the Delaware River and launched a surprise attack on the Hessian garrison. A much-needed American victory, Trenton saw Washington capture most of the enemy force.
A Guide to the Falklands War
An overview of the 1982 Falklands War between Great Britain and Argentina. The Falklands War occurred after Argentine forces occupied the Falklands Islands in April 1982. Shortly thereafter a British naval task force succeeded in recapturing the Falklands and forcing the Argentine troops there to surrender.
Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox of the American...
American Revolution Brigadier General Francis Marion a.k.a.The Swamp Fox
Historical Figures of the American Revolution:...
General Sir William Howe was a key British commander during the American Revolution. Howe led took command of British forces in American in 1775 and conducted successful campaigns against New York and Philadelphia. Howe resigned in 1778 and returned to Britain.
Battle of Midway: Turning Point in the Pacific
The Battle of Midway in early June 1942, marked the turning point of World War II in the Pacific. Fighting to the west of Midway, the US Navy attacked and sunk four Japanese aircraft carriers while losing only one of its own.
The Battle of Fort McHenry and the Birth of the...
The Battle of Fort McHenry was fought September 13/14, 1814, during the British attack on Baltimore. While British troops were checked at North Point on September 12, VAdm. Alexander Cochrane's fleet attacked Fort McHenry with the goal of taking the city. Enduring a 25-hour bombardment, Fort McHenry held and the British were forced to withdraw.
What Caused the Vietnam War?
The Vietnam War had its roots in French colonialism and World War II. Rebeling against French authority, Vietnamese forces were able to drive them from the country in 1954. Divided by the Geneva Accords, Vietnam was split north and south, with the United States supporting the democratic South Vietnam.
A Short Introduction to the Vietnam War
Start here for information about the Vietnam War - a short, one page overview of the conflict.
Texas Independence: Remember the Alamo
The Battle of Alamo was fought between Texan and Mexican forces between February 23 and March 6, 1836. Fighting for independence, the Texans fortified the Alamo and withstood a thirteen-day siege before Mexican forces overran the mission. Noted frontiermen Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett were killed in the fighting.
Bending Neutrality: The Lend-Lease Act
The Lend-Lease Act of 1941 was legislation that allowed the neutral United States to provide direct military aid to the Allies. The Lend-Lease act allowed the US to loan, lease, defense equipment for the duration of the war. Used extensively, it provided all typs of equipment from frontline weapons to vast numbers of trucks and railroad stock.
An American Icon: General George Washington
George Washington served as commander of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. A veteran of the French & Indian War, George Washington achieved mixed results in the field but became a powerful symbol of American resistance to Britain. George Washington later served as the first President of the United States.
The Globe Afire: The Battles of World War II
World War II saw some of the bloodiest battles ever fought. Beginning in 1939 with the German attack on Poland, the battles of the World War I ranged across the world from the France to Russia to the Pacific. These massive battles made famous places such as Stalingrad, Midway, the Bulge, and Iwo Jima.
The Battle of Stalingrad: A Turning Point on...
The Battle of Stalingrad was a key battle on the Eastern Front during World War II. Advancing into the Soviet Union, the Germans opened the Battle of Stalingrad in July 1942. After over six months of fighting at Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army was encircled and captured. The Soviet victory at Stalingrad was a turning point on the Eastern Front.
The Victor of Tours: Charles Martel
Charles Martel was the leader of the Frankish army at the Battle of Tours in 732, and played a key role in turning back the Muslim invasions of Europe. Charles Martel also founded the Carolingian Empire which was later ruled by his grandson, Charlemagne.
Liberty or Death: Causes of the American...
The American Revolution was caused as a result of increasing colonial unhappiness with the policies of the British government. Following the French and Indian War, the British attempted to levy a series of taxes on the American colonies. The American Revolution was caused when colonial protests led to armed conflict.
War on an Industrial Scale: The Battles of...
World War I saw some of the bloodiest battles ever fought. Beginning in 1914 with the attack on Serbia, the battles of the World War I ranged across the world from the France to Africa to Russia. These massive battles made famous places such as Tannenberg, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli.
A New Army Fights: Battle of Monmouth
Fought in June 1778, the Battle of Monmouth was the Continental Army's first major test after the winter at Valley Forge. The last major engagement in the north, the Battle of Monmouth ended as a draw with the British withdrawing to New York.
American's First Conflict: The Quasi-War
The Quasi-War was an undeclared maritime conflict between the United States and France. Fought between 1798-1800, the Quasi-War was the result of disagreements regarding the United States' neutrality during the war of the French Revolution.
Vietnam War: F-4 Phantom II
The F-4 Phantom II was originally developed for the US Navy, but also was used by the US Air Force and Marine Corps. A long-range fighter/fighter-bomber, the F-4 Phantom II saw extensive service during the Vietnam War. Replaced by the American military in the 1980s, the F-4 continued to see service with other nations.
End of an Era: The Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople took place in 1453 after the Ottomans successfully laid siege to the city. The loss of Constantinople marked the end of the Byzantine Empire. The siege of Constantinople was conducted by Mehmet II and lasted nearly two months.
Turning Point: Battle of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga were fought September 19 and October 7, 1777, in upstate New York. Advancing south, Maj. Gen. John Burgoyne encountered American forces south of Saratoga. Fighting two battles, Burgoyne was ultimately forced to surrender his army. The American victory at Saratoga was the turning point of the war and led to an alliance with France.
Leaders of the American Revolution: Marquis de...
The Marquis de Lafayette was a French noble who served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Arriving in 1777, Lafayette became one of Gen. George Washington's most trusted subordinates. Returning home, he played a prominent role in the early phases of the French Revolution.
The Fighting Quaker: Major General Nathanael...
A native of Rhode Island, General Nathanael Greene served in the Continental Army during the American Revolution. After several years with General George Washington's army, Greene was given command of Continental forces in the South. Fighting a brilliant campaign, Greene reclaimed much of the Carolinas by the war's end.
The Frozen Chosin: Battle of Chosin Reservoir
The Battle of Chosin Reservoir was fought during the Korean War after Chinese forces entered the conflict. Occurring between November 26 and December 13, 1950, the Battle of Chosin Reservoir saw badly outnumbered United Nations forces fight their way through Chinese lines to reach the port of Hungnam. During the campaign, UN troops endured extreme cold and hardship before successfully escaping.
A Bridge Too Far: Operation Market-Garden
Operation Market-Garden was conducted September 17-25, 1944, in an attempt to capture bridges over the Rhine. Market-Garden was devised by Bernard Montgomery and called for Allied airborne forces to be dropped near bridges in the Netherlands in conjunction with a ground offensive. While the first two sets of bridges were taken, the Germans held the third and Market-Garden failed.
How the Stamp Act Set the Stage for the...
The Stamp Act of 1765 was passed by Parliament to raise money to pay for British troops in North America. Taxing paper products, the Stamp Act was violently opposed by the colonists leading to calls of
Vietnam War 101: A Brief Overview
The Vietnam War traces its roots back to the country's division after the defeat of French colonial rule. American involvement in the Vietnam War began in 1965 following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. In 1973, US forces left Southeast Asia ending their participation and two years later Saigon fell to North Vietnamese forces ending the Vietnam War.
Island Hopping in World War II: A Path to...
During World War II, the Allies adopted a strategy of island hopping to move across the Pacific and defeat Japan.
Everything You Need to Know About the War of 1812
The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain. Beginning in June 1812, the War of 1812 was the result of American anger over trade issues, impressment of sailors, and British support of Indian attacks on the frontier. Lasting two and half years, the War of 1812 saw American forces attempt to invade Canada while the British attacked American territory. Ended in early 1815, the war resulted in a return to status quo ante bellum.
Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points: A Path to Peace
The Fourteen Points were developed during World War I by President Woodrow Wilson. Wilson hoped the terms of his Fourteen Points, which stressed progressive ideas like self-determination and free trade, could serve as the basis for a peace agreement. The Fourteen Points were discussed and partially incorporated into the Treaty of Versailles.
What Caused the War of 1812?
The War of 1812 was the result of rising tensions between the United States and Great Britain during the early years of the 19th century. These included the frequent impressment of sailors from American ships, interference with overseas trade, and the belief that the British were encouraging Native American attacks on the frontier. As a result, the US declared war in June 1812.
Crusader King: The Military Exploits of Richard...
King Richard I the Lionheart was crowned King of England September 3, 1189. A gifted military leader, Richard the Lionheart is best known for his role in the Third Crusade against Saladin. Richard was killed on April 6, 1199, while besieging Chalus-Chabrol castle in France.
Late Victory: Andrew Jackson and the Battle of...
The Battle of New Orleans was fought between December 23, 1814 and January 8, 1815. Unaware that peace had been concluded at Ghent, British forces moved forward to capture New Orleans. In several battles around the city, American troops, under Major General Andrew Jackson succeeded in defending the city.
Brother vs. Brother: Battles of the Civil War
The Civil War saw the largest battles ever fought in the Western Hemisphere. Beginning with the attack on Fort Sumter, the battles of the Civil War ranged across the country from the East Coast to the Mississippi River. These massive battles made famous places such as Antietam, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, and Peterburg.
World War I: Causes
The causes of World War I can be traced to several factors which had been simmering for a number of decades. Among these causes of World War I were rising tensions over imperialism, increased nationalism, and a major naval arms race. These causes were brought to a head by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria which set in motion the series of events that led to World War I.
The Korean War
The Korean War was fought between 1950 and 1953 between South Korea and United Nations forces and North Korea and China. The Korean War began when North Korea invaded its neighbor in June 1950. Over the next three years, the Korean War saw both sides fight up and down the peninsula until an armistice took effect in July 1953.
Evacuation of Dunkirk: Miracle on the Channel
Fighting the Battle of Dunkirk, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to hold off the German advance in order to allow Allied forces to evacuate to England. Forming a defensive perimeter around Dunkirk, British forces held out long enough to allow a wide variety of vessels to rescue over 330,000 men. Though a defeat, the success of the Dunkirk evacuation allowed Britain to continue the war.
Guide to the American Revolution
The American Revolution was fought between 1775 and 1783, and was the result of increasing colonial unhappiness with British rule. During the American Revolution, American forces were constantly hampered by a lack of resources, but managed to win critical victories which led to an alliance with France. Following the American victory at Yorktown, fighting effectively ended and the war was concluded with the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
Southern Campaigner: Lord Charles Cornwallis
Best known for his role in the American Revolution, Lord Charles Cornwallis was a noted British military commander and colonial governor in the 18th and 19th centuries. Forced to surrender to George Washington at Yorktown in 1781, Cornwallis later served as governor-general of India where he worked to reform British colonial administration.
Leading the Green Mountain Boys: Ethan Allen
Ethan Allen was the leader of the Green Mountain Boys and an American officer during the Revolutionary War. In 1775, Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold famously captured of Fort Ticonderoga. Ethan Allen served throughout the northern front and was heavily involved in Vermont politics.
Muslim Invasions: Battle of Tours
The Christian triumph at this battle between the Carolingian Franks and the forces of the Umayyad Caliphat, stemmed Muslim expansion into Western Europe.
Remember the Maine: The Beginning of the...
Commissioned in 1895, USS Maine was an armored cruiser built for the US Navy. Sent to protect American interests in Havana, Cuba, USS Maine exploded on the night of February 15, 1898. The loss of USS Maine, coupled with tensions over Cuba, led the United States to declare war on Spain that April.
Military Terms: What Does 'Going Over the Top'...
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American Revolution: Major General Henry Knox
Learn about Henry Know, who went from bookseller at the beginning of the American Revolution to serving as the United States' first secretary of war.
The Battle of Okinawa: How the US Advanced to...
The Battle of Okinawa was fought April 1 to June 22, 1945, during World War II. Landing on Okinawa, Allied forces met fierce resistance from the Japanese defenders. Lasting nearly three months, the Battle of Okinawa ended with Allied troops capturing the island.
The Longest Day: D-Day - The Invasion of Normandy
D-Day refers to the Invasion of Normandy which took place on June 6, 1944, during World War II. Landing on D-Day, Allied forces were preceded by airborne troops which dropped during the night. On D-Day, Allied forces gained a foothold in France from which they would advance to defeat Germany.
The Battles of Lexington and Concord: Prelude...
Fought on April 19, 1775, the Battles of Lexington and Concord were the opening actions of the American Revolution. The first shots were fired at Lexington as British troops from Boston passed through on their way to capture colonial military stores in Concord. After departing Concord, the British were attacked by colonial militia en route back to the city and suffered substantial casualties.
What Was China's Boxer Rebellion?
The Boxer Rebellion was an anti-foreigner, anti-West uprising in China in 1899 and 1900. Largely caused by foreign influence in trade, religion, and politics, the Boxer Rebellion was suppressed by the Eight-Nation Alliance of Japan, Great Britain, the United States, France, Italy, Germany, the Austo-Hungarian Empire, and Russia.
What Were the Main Causes of World War II in...
The causes of World War II in the Pacific began following World War I when the Western Powers recognized Japan as a colonial power. In a quest for additional natural resources and to ease population pressure, Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and China in 1937. These conflicts were condemned by the West, and pressure was exerted on the Japanese government to withdrawal. Rather than bow to the West, Japan launched attacked Western colonies causing World War II in the Pacific. Page 2.
American Rifleman: Brigadier General Daniel...
Brigadier General Daniel Morgan was a famed American commander during the American Revolution. First seeing action during Siege of Boston, Daniel Morgan played a key role in the Battle of Saratoga. Given a command in the south, Daniel Morgan won a decisive victory at the Battle of Cowpens in 1781.
Making Georgia Howl: Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman's March to the Sea commenced on November 15, 1864, after the capture of Atlanta by Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman. Marching to the port of Savannah, Sherman's men succeeded in taking the city on December 22. During the March to the Sea, Sherman's men conducted a scorched earth campaign to destroy Confederate resources in Georgia.
Leading the AEF: General John J. Pershing
A pivotal leader of the US Army in the early 20th century, General John J. Pershing was the leader of US forces in Europe during World War I and was a mentor for many of the generals of World War II. In addition, John J. Pershing was the only leader to achieve the rank of General of the Armies.
A Stunning Defeat: Siege of Charleston
The Siege of Charleston was fought March 29 to May 12, 1780, during the American Revolution. Landing near Charleston, British forces under Gen. Sir Henry Clinton laid siege to the city. The Siege of Charleston ended in a British victory when Maj. Gen. Benjamin Lincoln was forced to surrender.
Leyte Gulf: The Largest Naval Battle of World...
The Battle of Leyte Gulf was a series engagements fought October 23-26, 1944, in the waters around the Philippines. During the fighting, the Japanese attempted to block the Allied invasion of Leyte through a series of naval battles. The Battle of Leyte Gulf ended in a massive Allied victory and effectively crippled the Imperial Japanese Navy.
A Guide to the American Civil War
The Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865, and was the bloodiest conflict in American history. Pitting North against South, the Civil War had lasting repucussions that are still felt today. This overview will provide a brief history of the Civil War.
Historical Figures of World War II: George Patton
General George Patton was a key American commander during World War II. A gifted athlete, George Patton saw service in World War I and helped pioneer mobile warfare. An outspoken leader, Patton proved gifted corps and army commander in North Africa and Europe.
Texas Revolution: Battle of Gonzales
The Battle of Gonzales was the opening action of the Texas Revolution. Fought on October 2, 1835, the Battle of Gonzales occurred when Mexican troops tried to seize a cannon from the residents of Gonzales. In the fight that resulted, Mexican troops were forced to retreat.
The Horrors of Andersonville Prison in the...
Andersonville Prison was the most notorious prisoner of war camp of the Civil War. Constructed in southern Georgia, the 26.5 acre, open stockade received over 45,000 prisoners during its year of operation. Plagued by disease and starvation, 12,913 Union prisoners died at Andersonville.
The Munich Agreement: How Appeasement Failed to...
The Munich Agreement was concluded on September 30, 1938, and saw the powers of Europe give in to Nazi Germany's demands for the Sudetenland. Meeting in Munich, British and French leaders elected to effectively cede part of Czechoslovakia rather than risk war. The Munich Agreement was part of a policy of appeasement which led Europe down the path to World War II.
Persian Wars: Battle of Thermopylae
The Battle of Artemisium was fought in early August 480 BC in conjunction with the Battle of Thermopylae. The Battle of Artemisium was a naval engagement between the Greek and Persian fleets and saw fighting over a three day span. With the defeat on land at Thermopylae, the Greeks were forced to withdraw from Artemisium.
Frontier Campaigner: Brigadier General George...
Brigadier General George Rogers Clark was an American leader during the American Revolution. Campaigning in the Old Northwest, Clark won key victories over the British at Kaskaskia and Vincennes. Clark's victories helped ensure that the United States received the region during peace negotiations.
World War I: Zimmerman Telegram
The Zimmermann Telegram was sent in January 1917, by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann to his ambassadors in the United States and Mexico. The Zimmermann Telegram instructed them to seek a military alliance with Mexico if the United States entered the war on the side of the Allies. Intercepted by the British, who sent it to Washington, the Zimmerman Telegram helped draw the United States into the conflict.
World History 101: A Brief Overview of World...
World War I commenced in August 1914 after a series of events sparked by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. World War I was the largest conflict in history to date, killed over 15 million people, and devastated large parts of Europe before its end in November 1918.
The Paris Peace Accords and the Last Days of...
With the signing of the Paris Peace Accords in January 1973, the United States ended its direct involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1974, North Vietnam began offensive operations against South Vietnam. The Vietnam War ended in 1975 with the fall of Saigon.
Anglo-Zanzibar War: Shortest Conflict in History
Occurring from approximately 9:00-9:45 AM on August 27, 1896, the Anglo-Zanzibar War is widely believed to be the shortest war in history. Fought between Britain and Khalid bin Barghash, the Anglo-Zanzibar conflict arose after a dispute over who would become the sultan of Zanzibar.
John Paul Jones: America's First Naval Hero
Born in Scotland, John Paul Jones served as a merchant captain before coming to America in 1773. Joining the new Continental Navy, Jones distinguished himself in a number of commands including as captain of USS Ranger. Given command of Bonhomme Richard in 1779, Jones captured the British frigate HMS Serapis. Known for his fighting spirit, he is considered one of the fathers of the US Navy.
The Army's Drillmaster: Baron Friedrich von...
Baron Friedrich von Steuben was a former Prussian staff officer who served with the Continental Army during the American Revolution. Baron von Steuben is best remembered for training the army at Valley Forge. He later served in the Southern campaigns and was at the Battle of Yorktown.
Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Austerlitz
The Battle of Austerlitz was one of Napoleon Bonaparte's greatest victories. Fought on December 2, 1805, Austerlitz is also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors as Russian and Austrian forces were led by Tsar Alexander I and Emperor Francis II. The French victory at Austerlitz ended the War of the Third Coalition and led to the Austrians signing the Treaty of Pressburg
World War II: General Dwight D. Eisenhower - A...
General Dwight D. Eisenhower led Allied forces in Europe during World War II. During the conflict, Dwight Eisenhower oversaw operations ranging from the landings in North Africa to D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge. Dwight Eisenhower later served as US Army Chief of Staff and was elected President of the United States in 1952.
First Blood in Vietnam: Battle of Ia Drang
The Battle of Ia Drang was fought November 14-18, 1965, during the Vietnam War. The first major battle to involve American troops, Ia Drang saw air mobile US forces land in the Central Highlands. During the course of the fight, they endured heavy fighting before winning a tactical victory.
World War II: German Panther Tank
The Panther medium tank entered service with the Wehrmacht in mid-1943. Possessing an excellent blend of firepower, armor, and speed, the Panther was one of the finest tanks produced during World War II. Used until the end of the conflict, the Panther strongly influenced postwar tank designs.
Commanding the British: General Sir Henry Clinton
General Sir Henry Clinton was a key British commander during the American Revolution. Initially serving under Gen. William Howe, Clinton became the British commander-in-chief in 1778. Leading British troops until 1782, Clinton oversaw the final British defeat in North America.
Morgan's Triumph: Battle of Cowpens
The Battle of Cowpens saw American troops rout the forces of the notorious Lt. Col. Banastre Tarleton. Fought on January 17, 1781, the Battle of Cowpens featured a double envelopment by Brig. Gen. Daniel Morgan's small army which crushed the British. A key victory in the southern campaign, Cowpens ended a string of British wins in the region.
A Beginner's Guide to the Mexican-American War
The Mexican-American War resulted the dramatic growth of the United States and laid the seeds for the American Civil War. Start here for information on the Mexican-American War - a short, one page overview of the conflict.
American Revolution: Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party took place on December 16, 1773, in Boston harbor. Angered by the imposition of the Tea Act, colonists in Boston refused to allow new shipments to be landed. On the night of December 16, angry colonists boarded three tea ships in the harbor and tossed crates of tea into the harbor. Known as the Boston Tea Party, this act contributed to the tensions that led to the American Revolution.
Starting a War: Fort Necessity & the Battle...
Built in 1754, by Lt. Col. George Washington, Fort Necessity was located in the Great Meadows in present-day southwestern Pennsylvania. Tasked with constructing a road through the wilderness, Washington had Fort Necessity built after encountering resistance from the French in May. Attacked on July 3, Washington was forced to surrender Fort Necessity the next day.
A Bloody Sideshow: The Battle of Gallipoli
The Battle of Gallipoli began when British Commonwealth and French troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula of Turkey adjacent to the Dardanelles. In a brutal campaign, Allied forces were unable to dislodge the Turks from Gallipoli's heights. After nearly a year of fighting they ended the fight and withdrew.
Texas Revolution: Battle of San Jacinto
Fought on April 21, 1836, the Battle of San Jacinto secured independence for the Republic of Texas. After retreating back the San Jacinto River, General Sam Houston turned and attacked a Mexican army led by Jose Lopez de Santa Anna. Yelling
American Revolution: General Thomas Gage
A veteran of the French & Indian War, General Thomas Gage commanded British forces in America during the opening days of the American Revolution. Appointed governor of Massachusetts in 1774, Gage's attempts to regain control of the colony led to the outbreak of fighting in April 1775. Later that year, Gage was recalled in favor of General William Howe.
The Yalta Conference: Setting the Stage for the...
The Yalta Conference was held February 4-11, 1945, and was the last wartime meeting between Franklin Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin. Meeting at the Black Sea resort of Yalta, the conference addressed many issues pertaining to the postwar world including the occupation of Germany, Soviet intervention against Japan, and the borders of Poland.
Texas Revolution: Goliad Massacre
The Goliad Massacre took place on March 27, 1836, during the Texas Revolution. Having surrendered after the Battle of Coleto, Colonel James Fannin's command was massacred by Mexican forces at Goliad. In the course of the Goliad Massacre, 342 Texan prisoners were killed.
The Battle of Berlin: Soviet Victory and German...
The Battle of Berlin was fought April 16-May 2, 1945, during the final days of World War II. In the Battle of Berlin, Soviet forces encircled the city and endured a bitter fight to capture it. During the course of the Battle of Berlin, Adolf Hiter committed suicide.
World War II: Messerschmitt Me 262
The Messerschmitt Me 262 was the world's first operational jet fighter. A groundbreaking aircraft, the Me 262 entered service in 1944. Though faster than Allied fighters, the Me 262 was not as maneuverable and never appeared in large enough numbers to have an impact on the war.
American Revolution: Battle of Kings Mountain
The Battle of Kings Mountain was fought October 7, 1780, in backwoods South Carolina. Arriving at Kings Mountain, Loyalist militia under Major Patrick Ferguson was attacked by American forces. Fighting on the slopes of Kings Mountain, the Americans were able to overwhelm and destroy Ferguson's command.
Hundred Years' War: English Longbow
The English Longbow was devastating weapon on the medieval battlefield and was extensively used between the 13th and 17th centuries. Firing heavy arrows at long range, archers equipped with the English Longbow were capable of defeating charges by armored knights. The weapon is best remembered for its contributions to the English victories at Crecy (1346) and Agincourt (1415).
Vietnam War: Battle of Khe Sanh
The Battle of Khe Sanh was fought during the first four months of 1968. Besieged during the Tet Offensive, the Marine base at Khe Sanh held out against heavy attacks by the North Vietnamese with the support of American air power. In April, Operation Pegasus was launched which ultimately relieved the garrison.
World War I: Sinking of the Lusitania
RMS Lusitania was a British luxury liner operated by the Cunard Line between 1907 and 1915. On May 7, 1915, Lusitania was torpedoed off the southern coast of Ireland by U-20 during World War I. Sinking quickly, 1,198 of Lusitania's passengers were killed, including 128 Americans. The attack on Lusitania sparked international outrage.
World War II/Korean War: Lieutenant General...
Chesty Puller was noted US Marine who saw service during World War II and the Korean War. During his career, Chesty Puller became one of the most decorated Marines in history. Seeing action at notable engagements such as Guadalcanal and Chosin Reservoir, Chesty Puller later retired as a lieutenant colonel.
International Terrorism: The Entebbe Raid
After hijacking Air France Flight 139, the terrorists directed the plane to divert to Entebbe, Uganda where the Jews and Israelis were separated from the other passengers and kept hostage in the airport terminal. On July 4, 1976, a group of Israeli commandos landed at Entebbe and stormed the terminal, rescuing the the hostages.
First Italo-Ethiopian War: Battle of Adwa
Discover the reasons behind the First Italo-Ethiopian War - the Battle of Adwa - as well as the strategies and the aftermath.
World War II: Battle of the Atlantic
The Battle of the Atlantic took place between 1939 and 1945 during World War II. The Battle of the Atlantic saw German U-boats attempt to cut off Britain by sinking merchant shipping. Though German U-boats inflicted heavy losses, Allied naval forces ultimately won the Battle of the Atlantic.
Battle of Anzio: A Bloody Beahhead
The Battle of Anzio began on January 22, 1944, with Allied troops landing as part of Operation Shingle. Blocked by the Germans at Monte Cassino, Allied leaders hoped to outflank the Winter Line by landing further north at Anzio. While a beachhead was established around Anzio, it was soon contained by German forces. The Allies would not break out from Anzio until May.
Victor of Lake Erie: Commodore Oliver Hazard...
Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry was a noted American naval officer during the War of 1812. In 1813, Oliver Hazard Perry won the Battle of Lake Erie and captured the opposing British squadron. After the war, Oliver Hazard Perry served in a variety of peacetime assignments until his death in 1819.
World War II: V-2 Rocket
The V-2 was designed by the Germans during World War II and was the world's first ballistic missile. Fired from mobile launchers, V-2 strikes hit Antwerp and London during the latter stages of the conflict. Following the war, the V-2's creators played key roles in the space race.
Architect of Pearl Harbor: Admiral Isoroku...
Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was the genius behind Japan's early naval successes during World War II. After the attack at Pearl Harbor, Yamamoto was finally defeated at the Battle of Midway. On April 18, 1943, Yamamoto was killed when his plane was intercepted by American fighters near Bougainville.
World War II: Consolidated B-24 Liberator
The Consolidated B-24 Liberator was one of the principal heavy bombers used by the US Army Air Force during World War II. First flying in late 1939, the B-24 Liberator saw extensive service during the war and was also used for maritime patrols. One of the B-24's most famous raids occured in 1943, when the aircraft struck the oil fields near Ploesti.
American Revolution: Battle of Long Island
Fought August 27-30, 1776, the Battle of Long Island saw the British force Gen. George Washington's army from Long Island. Occupying a line near Flatbush, the Americans were outflanked when British troops move through Jamaica Pass. Falling back, Washington waited two days before evacuating to Manhattan.
Death in the Snow: Battle of Moscow
The Battle of Moscow began on October 2, 1941 and ended on January 7, 1942. In the Battle of Moscow, German forces launched Operation Typhoon to take the city but were turned back. The Battle of Moscow concluded with a Soviet counterattack which pushed the Germans back from the city.
Gallic Wars: Battle of Alesia
The Battle of Alesia took place in the fall of 52 BC as Julius Caesar laid siege to the Mandubii settlement at Alesia in Gaul. Building an extensive set of fortifications around Alesia, Caesar beat off attacks from Vercingetorix's garrison as well as a relief army. The victory at Alesia effectively secured Gaul for Rome.
A World War II Icon: M4 Sherman Tank
The iconic American tank of World War II, the M4 Sherman was produced in large numbers and served in all theaters. The M4 Sherman tank was a reliable, easily produced medium tank that provided invaluable service in supporting American troops. The M4 Sherman tank saw service with many nations during and after the war.
A Gallant Defense: The Battle of Wake Island
The Battle of Wake Island was fought December 8-23, 1941 and saw the US Marines mount a heroic defense before being overwhelemed by Japanese forces. First landing on Wake Island on December 11, the Japanese were repulsed by the Marines. Reinforced, they returned on the 23rd and succeeded in taking Wake Island.
Vietnam War: The Tet Offensive
The Tet Offensive was launched in January 1968, and redefined the Vietnam War. Though defeated by US and South Vietnamese forces, the Tet Offensive changed public perceptions of the conflict.
World War II: Sturmgewehr 44 (StG44)
The Sturmgewehr 44 was the first assault rifle to see deployment on a large scale. Developed by Nazi Germany, the Sturmgewehr 44 was introduced in 1943, and first saw service on the Eastern Front. Though far from perfect, the StG44 proved a versatile weapon for German forces.
Top Five Admirals of World War II
World War II saw the rise of great admirals in each of the combatant nations. Here we profile five of the best admirals to command fleets during the conflict.
Copperhead
A Copperhead was a term for Northern opponents of the American Civil War.
Persian Wars: Battle of Marathon
Occurring in August/September 490 BC, the Battle of Marathon saw an inferior Greek force defeat a much larger Persian army. Fought on the Plains of Marathon, the Greeks boldly attacked and caught the Persians in a double envelopment. Battling on three sides, the Persian ranks broke and they fled the field.
Rebels and Redcoats: People of the American...
The American Revolution saw professional British officers clash with American leaders who were drawn from all walks of life or from overseas. While many American leaders of the American Revolution had militia experience others were new to military activities. Some American commanders proved successful while others proved less so.
French & Indian War: Battle of Quebec (1759)
The Battle of Quebec was fought across the Plains of Abraham on September 13, 1759. Led by Major General James Wolfe, British forces succeeded in defeating the French and captured Quebec a short time later. The Battle of Quebec was the decisive battle of the war in North America and resulted in the death of both commanders.
World War II: Battle of Hong Kong
The Battle of Hong Kong was fought December 8-25, 1941, during World War II. Attacking Hong Kong, the Japanese were able to overwhelm the British garrison. The Battle of Hong Kong ended on December 25 with the colony's surrender and the date became known as
American Revolution: Banastre Tarleton
One of the most vilified British commanders of the American Revolution, Banastre Tarleton was an able cavalryman who earned fame for his cruel and heartless tactics in the Southern theater of the war. In 1781, Banastre Tarleton was badly defeated at the Battle of Cowpens. Later serving in Parliament, Banastre Tarleton was known for his advocacy of the slave trade.
Pancho Villa: Mexican Revolutionary
Biography of Doroteo Arango Arámbula, a.k.a. Pancho Villa, a famed leader during the Mexican Revolution (1910-1921).
Spanish-American War: Battle of San Juan Hill
The Battle of San Juan Hill was fought on July 1, 1898, and was a key engagement of the Spanish-American War. Having landing on Cuba, American forces sought to capture the port of Santiago de Cuba. Storming the San Juan Heights, they were able to begin a siege of the city which ultimately fell on July 17.
Weapons of World War II: The M1 Garand
The M1 Garand was the first semiautomatic rifle to be issued to an entire army. Developed in the 1920s and 1930s, the M1 was designed by John Garand. Firing a .30-06 round, the M1 Garand was the main infantry weapon employed by US forces during World War II and the Korean War.
Monty: Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery
Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery was a noted British commander during World War II. Taking command of Eighth Army in 1942, he won a critical victory at El Alamein before successfully leading it across North Africa, then across to Sicily and Italy. Commanding Allied forces in Western Europe, Montgomery masterminded Operation Market-Garden and fought until the end of the war.
Ottoman-Habsburg Wars: Battle of Lepanto
The Battle of Lepanto was a key naval engagement during the Ottoman-Habsburg Wars. Meeting in the Gulf of Patras, the forces of the Holy League succeeded in defeating the Ottoman fleet and ending Turkish expansion in the Mediterranean.
World War II: Battle of the River Plate
The Battle of the River Plate was fought on December 13, 1939, and saw British warships battle the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee. Fighting off the estuary of the River Plate, Admiral Graf Spee inflicted heavy damage on the British but was forced to seek a harbor in neutral Uruguay. Trapped by British forces after the battle, the Germans scuttled Admiral Graf Spee in the River Plate.
American History 101: An Brief Overview of the...
The American Civil War was fought between 1861 and 1865, and was the bloodiest conflict in American history. Pitting North against South, the American Civil War had lasting repucussions that are still felt today. This overview will provide a brief history of the American Civil War.
Attacking the Soft Underbelly: Invasion of Italy
The Invasion of Italy was conducted from September 3-16, 1943, during World War II. First landing in Calabria, Allied troops soon expanded the invasion.
American Revolution: Treaty of Paris (1783)
The Treaty of Paris (1783) was the treaty which ended the American Revolution. Signed on September 3, 1783, the Treaty of Paris saw Great Britain recognize the independence of the United States. The Treaty of Paris also worked to clarify borders and other issues resulting from the war.
World War II: Tiger I Tank
The Tiger I was a famous tank produced by Germany during World War II. The Tiger was the first to mount the heavy 88mm gun. Used on all fronts by the Wehrmacht, the Tiger was a dangerous opponent, but complex and mechanically unreliable.
American Civil War: Turning Points
The two victories at Gettysburg, PA and Vicksburg, MS, turned the Civil War in the Union's favor. Culminating within a day of each other, Gettysburg and Vicksburg respectively put Lee on the defensive in the East and opened the Mississippi in the West, paving the way for the South's ultimate defeat. Page 2.
Becoming Devil Dogs: Battle of Belleau Wood
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Korean War: General Matthew Ridgway
Matthew Ridgway was a key American airborne commander during World War II and later commanded United Nations troops during the Korean War. In Korea, Ridgway led the US 8th Army before replacing Gen. Douglas MacArthur as overall commander. In leading UN forces, Ridgway was able to hold the territory reclaimed after the Chinese offensives of 1950.
English Civil War: An Overview
The English Civil War was fought between Parliamentarian and Royalist forces and began in 1642. During the English Civil War, Parliamentarian forces won key battles at Marston Moor and Naseby. The English Civil War ended in 1651 when Parliamentarian troops triumphed.
Crusader: Frederick I Barbarossa
Read the biography and military history of Frederick I Barbarossa, who reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 to 1190.
American Revolution: Battle of Moore's Creek...
The Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge was fought February 27, 1776, during the American Revolution. Fought early in the conflict, the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge saw Loyalist forces in North Carolina clash with Patriot troops. Holding the bridge at Moore's Creek, the Patriots won a clear victory and scattered the Loyalist force.
American Civil War: Capture of New Orleans
The city of New Orleans was captured by Union forces on April 25, 1862. Battling past the Confederate forts on the Mississippi River, Flag Officer David G. Farragut succeeded in reaching the city after probing the defenses for over a week. The largest city in the Confederacy, the capture of New Orleans was a huge blow to the rebel cause.
World War II: First Lieutenant Audie Murphy
Audie Murphy was the most decorated America soldier of World War II. Achieving the rank of first lieutenant, Audie Murphy received 33 decorations for his service in Europe. Audie Murphy won the Medal of Honor for his actions at Holtzwihr, France and later became a movie star.
Roman Empire: Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest was fought in September 9 AD in present-day Germany. En route to winter quarters, three Roman legions sought to defeat a rebellion led by Arminius. Attacked in the Teutoburg Forest by the Germanic tribes, the Romans were effectively destroyed.
American Foreign Policy: What Was Containment?
Containment was a foreign policy strategy followed by the United States during the Cold War. Containment stated that communism needed to be contained, or it would spread to neighboring countries.
French & Indian War: Causes
The French & Indian War began in 1754 as the British and French began to clash along the frontier in North America. The focus of these early engagements was control of Fort Duquesne at the Forks of the Ohio. The first campaigns of the French & Indian War saw British efforts against the fort as well as on Lake George and in Nova Scotia.
Persian Wars: Battle of Salamis
The Battle of Salamis was fought in September 480 BC during the Persian Wars. Having been defeated at Thermopylae, Greek forces retreated to Salamis where they were pursued by the Persian fleet. Attacking the Persians in the Straits of Salamis, the Greeks won a stunning victory.
World War I/II: Lee-Enfield Rifle
The Lee-Enfield rifle was the standard service rifle of British and Commonwealth forces for much of the first half of the 20th century. A bolt-action, magazine-fed weapon, the Lee-Enfield saw extensive service during World War I and II. It is the second-most produced military rifle of all-time.
"I have not yet begun to fight": Battle of...
Meeting at the Battle of Flamborough Head, England, Commodore John Paul Jones, aboard Bonhomme Richard, and his squadron captured the British warships HMS Serapis and HMS Countess of Scarborough. The Battle of Flamborough Head was a major embarrassment for the Royal Navy and was one of the most famous American naval triumphs of the war.
Manhattan Project: Little Boy
Little Boy was the first atomic bomb used against Japan in World War II, detonated over Hiroshima on August 6, 1945.
World War II: General Omar Bradley
Key American field commander during World War II, seeing service in North Africa, rising to command the 12th Army Group in Western Europe after D-Day.
Military History Timeline: 1601-1800
A military history timeline of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Blood in Boston
The Boston Massacre took place on March 5, 1770, and helped lead to the American Revolution. The Boston Massacre saw a mob clash with British troops as part of a larger protest against taxation without representation. In the Boston Massacre, five civilians were killed.
Mexican-American War: Aftermath & Legacy
The Mexican-American War had long lasting effects for the United States and planted the seeds for the Civil War. This is a look at the aftermath and legacy of the Mexican-American War.
Operation Torch: America Enters the Fray
Operation Torch was launched November 8, 1942, and saw British and American forces land in North Africa. During Operation Torch, troops came ashore at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers. Meeting mixed resistance from the Vichy French, the Torch landings saw the Allies establish a position in western North Africa.
The Winter War: Death in the Snow
The Winter War occurred between the Finland and the Soviet Union during the winter of 1939-1940. Begun by the Soviets who sought to gain territory, the war cost them dearly as the Finns mounted a heroic defense. Finally breaking through the Finnish lines, the Russians forced Finland to sign the Peace of Moscow which ended the Winter War.
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