Terms of the Treaty of Versailles
The conditions imposed upon Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were severe and wide-ranging. Germany's military was to be limited to 100,000 men, while the once formidable Kaiserliche Marine was reduced to no more than six battleships (not to exceed 10,000 tons), 6 cruisers, 6 destroyers, and 12 torpedo boats. In addition, production of military aircraft, tanks, armored cars, and poison gas was prohibited. Territorially, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, while numerous other changes reduced Germany's size. Key among these was the loss of West Prussia to the new nation of Poland while Danzig was made a free city to ensure Polish access to the sea. The province of Saarland was transferred to League of Nations control for a period of fifteen years. At the end of this period, a plebiscite was to determine whether it returned to Germany or was made part of France.
Financially, Germany was issued a war reparations bill totaling £6.6 billion (later reduced to £4.49 billion in 1921). This number was determined by the Inter-Allied Reparations Commission. While Wilson took a more conciliatory view on this issue, Lloyd George had worked to increase the demanded amount. The reparations required by the treaty included not only money, but a variety of goods such as steel, coal, intellectual property, and agricultural produce. This mixed approach was an effort to prevent hyperinflation in postwar Germany which would decrease the value of the reparations.
Several legal restrictions were also imposed, most notably Article 231 which laid sole responsibility for the war on Germany. A controversial part of the treaty, its inclusion had been opposed by Wilson and it became known as the "War Guilt Clause." Part 1 of the treaty formed the Covenant of the League of Nations which was to govern the new international organization.
German Reaction & Signing
In Germany, the treaty provoked universal outrage, particularly Article 231. Having concluded the armistice in expectation of a treaty embodying the Fourteen Points, Germans took to the streets in protest. Unwilling to sign it, the nation's first democratically-elected chancellor, Philipp Scheidemann, resigned on June 20 forcing Gustav Bauer to form a new coalition government. Assessing his options, Bauer was soon informed that army was not capable of offering meaningful resistance. Lacking any other options, he dispatched Foreign Minister Hermann Müller and Johannes Bell to Versailles. The treaty was signed in the Hall of Mirrors, where the German Empire had been proclaimed in 1871, on June 28. It was ratified by the National Assembly on July 9.
Allied Reaction to the Treaty
Upon release of the terms, many in France were displeased and believed that Germany had been treated too leniently. Among those who commented was Marshal Ferdinand Foch who predicted with eerie precision that "This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for twenty years." As a result of their displeasure, Clemenceau was voted out of office in January 1920. While the treaty was better received in London, it ran into strong opposition in Washington. The Republican chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, worked vigorously to block its ratification. Believing that Germany had been let off too easily, Lodge also opposed the United States' participation in the League of Nations on constitutional grounds. As Wilson had intentionally excluded Republicans from his peace delegation and refused to consider Lodge's changes to the treaty, the opposition found strong support in Congress. Despite Wilson's efforts and appeals to the public, the Senate voted against the treaty on November 19, 1919. The US formally made peace through the Knox-Porter Resolution which was passed in 1921. Though Wilson's League of Nations moved forward, it did so without American participation and never became an effective arbiter of world peace.
The Map Changed
While the Treaty of Versailles ended conflict with Germany, the Treaties of Saint-German and Trianon concluded the war with Austria and Hungary. With the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire a wealth of new nations took shape in addition to the separation of Hungary and Austria. Key among these was Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. To the north, Poland emerged as an independent state as did Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. In the east, the Ottoman Empire made peace through the Treaties of Sèvres and Lausanne. Long the "sick man of Europe," the Ottoman Empire was reduced in size to Turkey, while France and Britain were given mandates over Syria, Mesopotamia, and Palestine. Having aided the aided in defeating the Ottomans, the Arabs were given their own state to the south.
A "Stab in the Back"
As the postwar Germany (Weimer Republic) moved forward, resentment over the end of the war and the Treaty of Versailles continued to fester. This coalesced in the "stab-in-the back" legend which stated that Germany's defeat was not the fault of the military but rather due to a lack of support at home from anti-war politicians and the sabotaging of the war effort by Jews, Socialists, and Bolsheviks. As such, these parties were seen to have stabbed the military in the back as it fought the Allies. The myth was given further credence by the fact that German forces had won the war on the Eastern Front and were still on French and Belgian soil when the armistice was signed. Resonating among conservatives, nationalists, and former-military, the concept became a powerful motivating force and was embraced by the emerging National Socialist Party (Nazis). This resentment, coupled with the economic collapse of Germany due to reparation-caused hyperinflation during the 1920s, facilitated the rise of the Nazis to power under Adolf Hitler. As such, the Treaty of Versailles may be seen as leading to many of the causes of World War II in Europe. As Foch had feared, the treaty simply served as a twenty-year armistice with World War II beginning in 1939.