The seeds of World War II were sown in the Treaty of Versailles which ended World War I. Crippled economically by the terms of the treaty and the Great Depression, Germany embraced the fascist Nazi Party. Led by Adolf Hitler, the rise of the Nazi party mirrored the ascent of Benito Mussolini's fascist government in Italy. Taking total control of the government in 1933, Hitler remilitarized Germany, stressed racial purity, and sought "living space" for the German people. In 1938, he annexed Austria and bullied Britain and France into allowing him to take the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. The following year, Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union and invaded Poland on September 1, beginning the war.
Following the invasion of Poland, a period of quiet settled over Europe. Known as the "Phoney War," it was punctuated by the German conquest of Denmark and the invasion of Norway. After defeating the Norwegians, the war moved back to the Continent. In May 1940, the Germans surged into the Low Countries, quickly compelling the Dutch to surrender. Defeating the Allies in Belgium and Northern France, the Germans were able to isolate a large segment of the British Army, causing it to evacuate from Dunkirk. By the end of June, the Germans forced the French to surrender. Standing alone, Britain successfully fended off air attacks that August and September, winning the Battle of Britain and eliminating any chance of German landings.
On June 22, 1941, German armor attacked into the Soviet Union as part of Operation Barbarossa. Through the summer and early fall, German troops scored victory after victory, driving deep into Soviet territory. Only determined Soviet resistance and the onset of winter prevented the Germans from taking Moscow. Over the next year, both sides battled back and forth, with the Germans pushing into the Caucasus and attempting to take Stalingrad. Following a long, bloody battle, the Soviets were victorious and began to push the Germans back all along the front. Driving through the Balkans and Poland, the Red Army pressed the Germans and ultimately invaded into Germany, capturing Berlin in May 1945.
With the fall of France in 1940, the fighting shifted to the Mediterranean. Initially, combat largely occurred at sea and in North Africa between British and Italian forces. Following their ally's lack of progress, German troops entered the theater in early 1941. Through 1941 and 1942, British and Axis forces battled in the sands of Libya and Egypt. In November 1942, US troops landed and aided the British in clearing North Africa. Moving north, Allied forces captured Sicily in August 1943, leading to the fall of Mussolini's regime. The next month, the Allies landed in Italy and began pushing up the peninsula. Battling through numerous defensive lines, they succeeded in conquering much of the country by the war's end.
Coming ashore in Normandy on June 6, 1944, US and British forces returned to France, opening the western front. After consolidating the beachhead, the Allies broke out, routing the German defenders and sweeping across France. In an attempt to end the war before Christmas, Allied leaders launched Operation Market-Garden, an ambitious plan designed to capture bridges in Holland. While some success was achieved, the plan ultimately failed. In a final attempt to stop the Allied advance, the Germans launched a massive offensive in December 1944, beginning the Battle of the Bulge. After defeating the German thrust, the Allies pressed into Germany forcing its surrender on May 7, 1945.
Following the strike at Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces quickly defeated the British in Malaya and Singapore, as well as seized the Netherlands East Indies. Only in the Philippines did Allied forces hold out, stubbornly defending Bataan and Corregidor for months buying time for their comrades to regroup. With the fall of the Philippines in May 1942, the Japanese sought to conquer New Guinea, but were blocked by the US Navy at the Battle of the Coral Sea. A month later, US forces won a stunning victory at Midway, sinking four Japanese carriers. The victory stopped Japanese expansion and allowed the Allies to go on the offensive. Landing at Guadalcanal on August 7, 1942, Allied forces fought a brutal six-month battle to secure the island.
As Allied forces were moving through the Central Pacific, others were desperately fighting in New Guinea, Burma, and China. Following the Allied victory at Coral Sea, Gen. Douglas MacArthur led Australian and US troops on a lengthy campaign to expel Japanese forces from northeastern New Guinea. To the west, the British were driven out of Burma and back to the Indian frontier. Over the next three years, they fought a brutal battle to retake the Southeast Asian nation. In China, World War II became a continuation of the Second Sino-Japanese War which had begun in 1937. Supplied by the Allies, Chiang Kai-Shek fought the Japanese while warily cooperating with Mao Zedong's Chinese Communists.
The most transformative conflict in history, World War II impacted the entire globe and set the stage for the Cold War. As World War II raged, the leaders of the Allies met several times to direct the course of the fighting and to begin planning for the postwar world. With the defeat of Germany and Japan, their plans were put into action as both nations were occupied and a new international order took shape. As tensions grew between East and West, Europe was divided and a new conflict, the Cold War, began. As a result, the final treaties ending World War II were not signed until forty-five years later.