Conflict & Dates:
The Battle of Fort McHenry was fought September 13/14, 1814, during the War of 1812.
Commanders & Forces:
- Major General Samuel Smith
- Major George Armistead
- 1,000 men (at Fort McHenry), 20 guns
- Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane
- Colonel Arthur Brooke
- 19 ships
- 5,000 men
Battle of Fort McHenry - Background:
Following their successful campaign against Washington DC, British forces under Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane and Major General Robert Ross advanced up the Chesapeake Bay to attack Baltimore, MD. A vital port city, Baltimore was believed by the British to be the base of many of the American privateers that were preying on their shipping. To take the city, Ross and Cochrane planned a two-prong attack with the former landing at North Point and advancing overland, while the latter attacked Fort McHenry and the harbor defenses by water.
Battle of Fort McHenry - Fighting at North Point:
On September 12, 1814, Ross landed with 4,500 men on the tip of North Point and began advancing northwest towards Baltimore. His men soon encountered American forces under Brigadier General John Stricker. Dispatched by Major General Samuel Smith, Stricker was under orders to delay the British while the fortifications around the city were completed. In the resulting Battle of North Point, Ross was killed and his command took heavy losses. With Ross' death, command devolved to Colonel Arthur Brooke who elected to remain on the field through a rainy night.
Battle of Fort McHenry - The American Defenses:
While Brooke's men suffered in the rain, Cochrane began moving his fleet up the Patapsco River toward the city's harbor defenses. These were anchored on the star-shaped Fort McHenry. Situated on Locust Point, the fort guarded the approaches to the Northwest Branch of the Patapsco which led to the city as well as the Middle Branch of the river. Fort McHenry was supported across the Northwest Branch by a battery at Lazaretto and by Forts Covington and Babcock to the west on the Middle Branch. At Fort McHenry, the garrison commander, Major George Armistead possessed a composite force of around 1,000 men.
Battle of Fort McHenry - Bombs Bursting in Air:
Early on September 13, Brooke began advancing towards the city along the Philadelphia Road. In the Patapsco, Cochrane was hampered by shallow waters which precluded sending forward his heaviest ships. As a result, his attack force consisted of five bomb ketches, 10 smaller warships, and the rocket vessel HMS Erebus. By 6:30 AM they were in position and opened fire on Fort McHenry. Remaining out of range of Armistead's guns, the British ships struck the fort with heavy mortar shells (bombs) and Congreve rockets from Erebus.
Advancing ashore, Brooke, who believed they had defeated city's defenders the day before, was stunned when his men found 12,000 Americans behind substancial earthworks east of the city. Under orders not to attack unless with a high chance of success, he began probing Smith's lines but was unable to find a weakness. As a result, he was forced to hold his position and await the outcome of Cochrane's assault on the harbor. Early in the afternoon, Rear Admiral George Cockburn, thinking the fort had been badly damaged, moved the bombardment force closer increase the effectiveness of their fire.
As the ships closed, they came under intense fire from Armistead's guns and were compelled to draw back to their original positions. In effort to break the stalemate, the British attempted to move around the fort after dark. Embarking 1,200 men in small boats, they rowed up the Middle Branch. Mistakenly thinking they were safe, this assault force fired signal rockets which gave away their position. As a result, they quickly came under an intense crossfire from Forts Covington and Babcock. Taking heavy losses, the British withdrew.
Battle of Fort McHenry - The Flag Was Still There:
By dawn, with the rain subsiding, the British had fired between 1,500 and 1,800 rounds at the fort with little impact. The greatest moment of danger had come when a shell struck the fort's unprotected magazine but had failed to explode. Realizing the potential for disaster, Armistead had the fort's gunpowder supply distributed to safer locations. As the sun began to rise, he ordered the fort's small storm flag lowered and replaced with the standard garrison flag measuring 42 feet by 30 feet. Sewn by local seamstress Mary Pickersgill, the flag was clearly visible to all of the ships in the river.
The sight of the flag and the ineffectiveness of the 25-hour bombardment convinced Cochrane that the harbor could not be breached. Ashore, Brooke, with no support from the navy, decided against a costly attempt on the American lines and began retreating towards North Point where his troops re-embarked.
Battle of Fort McHenry - Aftermath
The attack on Fort McHenry cost Armistead's garrison 4 killed and 24 wounded. British losses were around 330 killed, wounded, and captured, most of which occurred during the ill-fated attempt to move up the Middle Branch. The successful defense of Baltimore coupled with victory at the Battle of Plattsburgh aided in restoring American pride after the burning of Washington DC and bolstered the nation's bargaining position at the Ghent peace talks.
The battle is best remembered for inspiring Francis Scott Key to write The Star-Spangled Banner. Detained aboard the ship Minden, Key had gone to meet with the British to secure the release of Dr. William Beanes who had been arrested during the attack on Washington. Having overhead the British attack plans, Key was forced to remain with the fleet for the duration of the battle. Moved to write during the fort's heroic defense, he composed the words to an old drinking song entitled To Anacreon in Heaven. Initially published after the battle as the Defense of Fort McHenry, it eventually became known as the Star-Spangled Banner and was made the National Anthem of the United States.