Battle of Tsushima - Conflict:
The Battle of Tsushima was fought during the Russo-Japanese War.
Battle of Tsushima - Date:
Admiral Togo won his famous victory on May 27-28, 1905.
Admirals & Fleets:
- Admiral Togo Heihachiro
- Principal Ships: 4 battleships, 27 cruisers
- Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky
- Admiral Nikolai Nebogatov
- 11 battleships, 8 cruisers
Battle of Tsushima - Overview:
Following the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, Russian fortunes in the Far East began to decline. At sea, their Pacific Squadron was defeated at the Battles of the Yellow Sea and Ulsan, while ashore the Japanese had laid siege to Port Arthur. To turn the tide, Tsar Nicholas II decided to send five divisions of the Russian Baltic Fleet to the Pacific. Upon arrival, it was hoped that the ships would allow the Russians to regain naval superiority and disrupt Japanese supply lines. In the meantime, reinforcements would be sent overland via the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
Designated the Second Pacific Squadron, the Russian fleet sailed from the Baltic on October 15, 1904, under the command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky. Steaming south through the North Sea with 11 battleships, 8 cruisers, and 9 destroyers, the Russians were alarmed by rumors of Japanese torpedo boats operating in the area. As a result, the Russians accidentally fired on a number of British trawlers fishing near Dogger Bank. The resultant diplomatic incident led to the Royal Navy shadowing the Russian fleet until a resolution was achieved.
Battle of Tsushima - Route of the Baltic Fleet:
Prevented from using the Suez Canal by the British, Rozhestvensky was forced to take the fleet around the Cape of Good Hope. Due to a lack of friendly coaling bases, his ships frequently carried surplus coal stacked on their decks. Steaming over 18,000 miles, the Russian fleet reached Cam Ranh Bay in Indochina on April 14, 1905. Here Rozhestvensky rendezvoused with the Third Pacific Squadron and received new orders. As Port Arthur had fallen on January 2, the combined fleet was to make for Vladivostok. Departing Indochina, Rozhestvensky steamed north with the older ships of the Third Pacific Squadron in tow.
Battle of Tsushima - The Japanese Plan:
Alerted to the Russian's approach, the commander of the Japanese Combined Fleet, Admiral Heihachiro Togo began preparing his fleet for battle. Based at Pusan, Korea, Togo's fleet consisted primarily of 4 battleships and 27 cruisers, as well as a large number of destroyers and torpedo boats. Believing that Rozhestvensky would pass through the Tsushima Strait to reach Vladivostok, Togo ordered patrols to watch the area. Flying his flag from the battleship Mikasa, Togo oversaw a largely modern fleet which had been thoroughly drilled and trained.
In addition, the Japanese had begun using high explosive shells which tended to inflict more damage than the armor-piercing rounds preferred by the Russians. While Rozhestvensky possessed four of Russia's newest Borodino-class battleships, the remainder of his fleet tended to be older and in ill-repair. This was worsened by the low morale and inexperience of his crews. Moving north, Rozhestvensky attempted to slip through the strait on the night of May 26/27, 1905. Detecting the Russians, the picket cruiser Shinano Maru radioed Togo their position around 4:55 AM.
Battle of Tsushima - The Russians Routed:
Leading the Japanese fleet to sea, Togo approached from the north with his ships in a line ahead formation. Spotting the Russians at 1:40 PM, the Japanese moved to engage. Aboard his flagship, Knyaz Suvorov, Rozhestvensky pressed on with the fleet sailing in two columns. Crossing in front of the Russian fleet, Togo ordered the fleet to follow him through a large u-turn. This allowed the Japanese to engage Rozhestvensky's port column and block the route to Vladivostok. As both sides opened fire, the superior training of the Japanese soon showed as the Russian battleships were pummeled.
Striking from around 6,200 meters, the Japanese hit Knyaz Suvorov, badly damaging the ship and injuring Rozhestvensky. With the ship sinking, Rozhestvensky was transferred to the destroyer Buiny. With the battle raging, command devolved to Rear Admiral Nikolai Nebogatov. As the firing continued, the new battleships Borodino and Imperator Alexander III were also put out of action and sunk. As the sun began to set, the heart of the Russian fleet had been destroyed with little damage inflicted upon the Japanese in return.
After dark, Togo launched a massive attack involving 37 torpedo boats and 21 destroyers. Slashing into the Russian fleet, they relentlessly attacked for over three hours sinking the battleship Navarin and crippling the battleship Sisoy Veliki. Two armored cruisers were also badly damaged, forcing their crews to scuttle them after dawn. The Japanese lost three torpedo boats in the attack. When the sun rose the next morning, Togo moved in to engage the remnants of Nebogatov's fleet. With only six ships left, Nebogatov hoisted the signal to surrender at 10:34 AM. Believing this a ruse, Togo opened fire until the signal was confirmed at 10:53. Throughout the rest of the day, individual Russian ships were hunted and sunk by the Japanese.
Battle of Tsushima - Aftermath
The Battle of Tsushima was the only decisive fleet action fought by steel battleships. In the fighting, the Russian fleet was effectively destroyed with 21 ships sunk and six captured. Of the Russian crews, 4,380 were killed and 5,917 captured. Only three ships escaped to reach Vladivostok, while another six were interned in neutral ports. Japanese losses were a remarkably light 3 torpedo boats as well as 117 killed and 583 wounded. The defeat at Tsushima badly damaged Russia's international prestige while signaling Japan's ascent as a naval power. In the wake of Tsushima, Russia was forced to sue for peace.