Early Career of David Beatty:
Born on January 17, 1871, at Howbeck Lodge in Cheshire, David Beatty joined the Royal Navy at age thirteen. Warranted as a midshipman in January 1884, he was assigned to the flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet, HMS Alexandria two years later. An average midshipman, Beatty did little to stand out and was transferred to HMS Cruiser in 1888. Following a two-year assignment at the HMS Excellent gunnery school at Portsmouth, Beatty was commissioned as a lieutenant and placed in the corvette HMS Ruby for a year.
After serving aboard the battleships HMS Camperdown and Trafalgar, Beatty received his first command, the destroyer HMS Ranger in 1897. Beatty's big break came the following year when he was selected as second-in-command of the river gunboats that would accompany Lord Kitchener's Khartoum Expedition against the Mahdists in Sudan. Serving under Commander Cecil Colville, Beatty commanded the gunboat Fatah and gained notice as a daring and skillful officer. When Colville was wounded, Beatty took over leadership of the expedition's naval elements.
During the campaign, Beatty's gunboats shelled the enemy capital and provided fire support during the Battle of Omdurman on September 2, 1898. While taking part in the expedition, met and befriended Winston Churchill, then a junior officer in the 21st Lancers. For his role in the Sudan, Beatty was mentioned in dispatches, awarded a Distinguished Service Order, and promoted to commander. This promotion came at the young age of 27 after Beatty had only served half the typical term for a lieutenant. Posted to the China Station, Beatty was named executive officer of the battleship HMS Barfleur.
In this role, he served as a member of the Naval Brigade that fought in China during the 1900 Boxer Rebellion. Again serving with distinction, Beatty was wounded twice in the arm and sent back to England. For his heroism, he was promoted to captain. Age 29, Beatty was fourteen years younger than the average newly-promoted captain in the Royal Navy. As he recovered, he met and married Ethel Tree in 1901. The wealthy heiress to the Marshall Fields fortune, this union provided Beatty with an independence not typical of most naval officers and offered access to the highest social circles.
While his marriage to Ethel Tree provided extensive benefits, he soon learned that she was highly neurotic. This led her to cause him extreme mental discomfort on several occasions. Though a daring and skilled commander, the access that the union provided to a lifestyle of sporting leisure led him to become increasingly high-strung and he never developed into a calculated leader similar to his future commander Admiral John Jellicoe. Moving through a series of cruiser commands in the early years of the 20th century, Beatty's personality manifested itself in the wearing of non-regulation uniforms.
After a two-year stint as naval advisor to the Army Council, he was given command of the battleship HMS Queen in 1908. Ably captaining the ship, he was promoted to rear admiral on January 1, 1910, becoming the youngest (age 39) admiral (Royal Family members excluded) in the Royal Navy since Lord Horatio Nelson. Appointed as second-in-command of the Atlantic Fleet, Beatty declined stating the position had no prospects for advancement. Unimpressed the Admiralty placed him on half-pay without a command for over a year.
Beatty's luck changed in 1911, when Churchill became First Lord of the Admiralty and made him Naval Secretary. Utilizing his connection to the First Lord, Beatty was promoted to vice admiral in 1913, and given command of the Home Fleet's prestigious 1st Battlecruiser Squadron. A dashing command, it suited Beatty who by this point was known for wearing his cap at a jaunty angle. As commander of the battlecruisers, Beatty reported to the commander of the Grand (Home) Fleet which was based at Scapa Flow in the Orkneys.
David Beatty in World War I:
With the outbreak of World War I in the summer of 1914, Beatty's battlecruisers were called upon to support a British raid on the coast of Germany. In the resulting Battle of the Heligoland Bight, Beatty's ships entered a confused fray and sank two German light cruisers before British forces withdrew west. An aggressive leader, Beatty expected similar behavior from his officers and expected them to seize the initiative whenever possible. Beatty returned to action on January 24, 1915, when his battlecruisers met their German counterparts at the Battle of Dogger Bank.
Intercepting Admiral Franz von Hipper's battlecruisers returning from a raid on the English coast, Beatty's ships succeeded in sinking the armored cruiser SMS Blücher and inflicting damage on the other German vessels. Beatty was furious after the battle as a signaling error had allowed the majority of von Hipper's ships to escape. After a year of inaction, Beatty led the Battlecruiser Fleet at the Battle of Jutland on May 31-June 1, 1916. Encountering von Hipper's battlecruisers, Beatty opened the fight but was drawn towards the main body of the German High Seas Fleet by his adversary.
Realizing that he was entering a trap, Beatty reversed course with the goal of luring the Germans towards Jellicoe's approaching Grand Fleet. In the fight, two of Beatty's battlecruisers, HMS Indefatigable and HMS Queen Mary exploded and sank leading him to comment, "There seems to be something wrong with our bloody ships today." Successfully bringing the Germans to Jellicoe, Beatty's battered ships took a secondary role as the main battleship engagement began. Fighting until after dark, Jellicoe unsuccessfully attempted to block the Germans from returning to their base with the goal of re-opening the battle in the morning.
Following the battle, Beatty was criticized for mismanaging the initial engagement with the Germans, not concentrating his forces, and failing to keep Jellicoe fully informed of German movements. Despite this, the workman-like Jellicoe received the brunt of the criticism from the government and public for failing to achieve a Trafalgar-like victory. In November of that year, Jellicoe was removed from command of the Grand Fleet and made First Sea Lord. To replace him, the showman Beatty was promoted to admiral and given command of the fleet.
Taking command, Beatty issued a new set of battle instructions emphasizing aggressive tactics and pursuing the enemy. He also continually worked to defend his actions at the Jutland. Though the fleet did not fight again during the war, he was able to maintain a high level of readiness and morale. On November 21, 1918, he formally received the surrender of the High Seas Fleet. For his service during the war, he was made Admiral of the Fleet on April 2, 1919.
Appointed First Sea Lord that year, he served until 1927, and actively opposed postwar naval cuts. Also made the first chairman of the Chief of Staff, Beatty strenuously argued that the fleet was the first line of Imperial defense and that Japan would be the next great threat. Retiring in 1927, he was created 1st Earl Beatty, Viscount Borodale, and Baron Beatty of the North Sea and Brooksby and continued to advocate for the Royal Navy until his death on March 11, 1936. He was interred at St. Paul's Cathedral in London.