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World War I: RAF S.E.5

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World War I: RAF S.E.5

A squadron of S.E.5s during World War I

Photograph Source: Public Domain
World War I: RAF S.E.5

The RAF S.E.5

Photograph Source: Public Domain

General:

  • Length: 20 ft. 11 in.
  • Wingspan: 26 ft. 7 in.
  • Height: 9 ft. 6 in.
  • Wing Area: 244 sq. ft.
  • Empty Weight: 1,410 lbs
  • Loaded Weight: 1,935 lbs.
  • Crew: 1

Performance:

  • Power Plant: 1 x Hispano-Suiza, 8 cylinders V, 200 HP
  • Range: 300 miles
  • Max Speed: 138 mph
  • Ceiling: 17,000 ft.

Armament:

  • 1 x 0.303 in (7.7 mm) forward-firing Vickers machine gun
  • 1x .303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun
  • 4x 18kg Cooper bombs

Development:

In 1916, the Royal Flying Corps issued a call to the British aircraft industry to produce a fighter that was superior to the enemy in all respects. Answering this request were the Royal Aircraft Factory at Farnborough and Sopwith Aviation. While discussions began at Sopwith which led to the legendary Camel, R.A.F.'s Henry P. Folland, J. Kenworthy and Major F. W. Goodden began working on a design of their own. Utilizing the new water-cooled 150-hp Hispano-Suiza engine, the team at Farnborough created a tough, square-rigged, single seat fighter.

Construction of three prototypes began in the fall of 1916, and one flew for the first time on November 22. During testing, two of the three prototypes crashed, the first killing Major Goodden on January 28, 1917. As the aircraft was refined, it proved to possess high speed and maneuverability, but also was inherently stable making it an ideal gun platform. To arm the aircraft, the designers mounted a synchronized Vickers machine gun to fire through the propeller. This was partnered with a top wing-mounted Lewis gun which was attached with a Foster mounting.

Operational History:

The S.E.5 began service with No. 56 Squadron in March 1917, and deployed to France the following month. Arriving during "Bloody April," the S.E.5 was one of the aircraft that aided in reclaiming the skies from the Germans. During its early career, pilots found that the S.E.5 was underpowered and voiced their complaints. Famed ace Albert Ball stated that the "S.E.5 has turned out a dud." Quickly moving to address this issue, R.A.F. rolled out the S.E.5a in June 1917. Possessing a 200-hp Hispano-Suiza engine, the S.E.5a became the standard version of the aircraft with 5,265 produced.

The improved version of the aircraft became a favorite of British pilots as it provided excellent high-altitude performance, good visibility, and was much easier to fly than the Sopwith Camel. Despite this, production of the S.E.5a lagged behind that of the Camel due to production difficulties with the Hispano-Suiza engine. These were not resolved until the introduction of the 200-hp Wolseley Viper (a high-compression version of the Hispano-Suiza) engine in late 1917. As a result, many squadrons slated to receive the new aircraft were forced to soldier on with older types.

Large numbers of the S.E.5a did not reach the front until early 1918. At full deployment, the aircraft equipped 21 British and 2 American squadrons. The S.E.5a was the aircraft of choice of several famed aces such as Albert Ball, Billy Bishop, Edward Mannock, and James McCudden. Serving until the end of the war, it was superior to the German Albatros series of fighters and was one of the few Allied aircraft that was not outclassed by the new Fokker D.VII in May 1918.

Production:

During World War I, the S.E.5 was produced by Austin Motors (1,650), Air Navigation and Engineering Company (560), Martinsyde (258), the Royal Aircraft Factory (200), Vickers (2,164) and Wolseley Motor Company (431). All told, 5,265 S.E.5s were built, with all but 77 in the S.E.5a configuration. A contract for 1,000 S.E.5as was issued to the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company in the United States, however only one was completed before the end of hostilities.

Selected Sources

 

 

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