Army Leaders & Pioneers
- 1800s Army Biographies (13)
- American Revolution (28)
- American Civil War (68)
- 1900s Army Biographies (34)
Muslim Invasions: Charles Martel
The leader of the Frankish army at the Battle of Tours in 732, Charles Martel played a key role in turning back the Muslim invasions of Europe. Charles Martel also founded the Carolingian Empire which was later ruled by his grandson, Charlemagne.
Crusades: Frederick I Barbarossa
Frederick I Barbarossa reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 to 1190. A gifted leader he sought to restore glory to the empire and campaigned in Germany and Italy to this end. Frederick Barbarossa was killed in southeastern Anatolia while leading his army on the Third Crusade.
Crusades: King Richard I the Lionheart of England
King Richard I the Lionheart was crowned King of England September 3, 1189. A gifted military leader, Richard the Lionheart is best known for his role in the Third Crusade against Saladin. Richard was killed on April 6, 1199, while besieging Chalus-Chabrol castle in France.
England: King Edward I
Edward I was a renowned warrior and King of England. Ruling from 1272 to 1307, Edward I crusaded in his youth and took part in numerous campaigns against Wales and Scotland. Edward I was known as Edward Longshanks for his height and as "Hammer of the Scots" for his battlefield performance.
Scottish Independence: Robert the Bruce
Robert the Bruce ruled as King of Scotland from 1306 to 1329. One of the great warrior-kings, Robert the Bruce was instrumental in securing Scotland's independence. Robert the Bruce's greatest victory in this cause came at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.
Hundred Years' War: Edward III
King Edward III of England assumed the throne in 1327, he reasserted royal authority after the weak reign of his father, Edward II. Turning England into an effective military power, Edward III led the nation into the Hundred Years' War. Winning numerous victories, Edward conquered large parts of France.
Thirty Years' War: Albrecht von Wallenstein
A gifted commander, Albrecht von Wallenstein commanded Catholic troops in the service of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II during the Thirty Years' War. Noted for his victories in Dessau, Silesia, and at Alte Veste, von Wallenstein was also known for his ability to raise armies. In 1634, von Wallenstein was killed on the order of Ferdinand who...
English Civil War: Sir Thomas Fairfax
Sir Thomas Fairfax, 3rd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, was a noted Parliamentarian commander during the English Civil War. Active during the fighting, Sir Thomas Fairfax led the New Model Army to victory at the Battle of Naseby in 1645. In 1660, Sir Thomas Fairfax was active in the Restoration of Charles II.
War of the Spanish Succession: John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough
John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough was one of Britain's best field commanders in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. A gifted leader and diplomat, Churchill won stunning victories at Blenheim and Ramillies during the War of the Spanish Succession.
Seven Years' War: Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland
Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland was the son of King George II and a well-know British commadner during the 18th century. The Duke of Cumberland saw service during the War of the Austrian Succession and led British forces at the Battle of Culloden. The Duke of Cumberland's career ended when he was defeated during the Seven Years' War.
French & Indian War: Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst
Field Marshal Jeffrey Amherst was key British commander during the French & Indian War. Initially seeing service in Europe, Amherst was dispatched to North America where he captured Louisbourg. Becoming the commmander-in-chief in North American, Jeffrey Amherst oversaw the conquest of Canada.
Seven Years' War: Major General Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive
Robert Clive was a noted commander and leader in the East India Company during the 18th century. Arriving in India in the 1740s, Robert Clive helped establish British supremacy over India. Robert Clive is best remembered for his victory at the Battle of Plassey.
French & Indian War: Major General James Wolfe
Major General James Wolfe was a notable British commander during the French & Indian War. James Wolfe saw extensive service in Europe before taking part in the Siege of Louisbourg in 1758. Given independent command, James Wolfe attacked Quebec and was killed during the 1759 Battle of Quebec.
American Revolution: Ethan Allen
A profile of Ethan Allen, leader of the Green Mountain Boys and an American officer during the Revolutionary War. Best known for his capture of Fort Ticonderoga, Ethan Allen served throughout the northern front and was heavily involved in Vermont politics.
American Revolution: Lord Charles Cornwallis
Best known for his role in the American Revolution, Lord Charles Cornwallis was a noted British military commander and colonial governor in the 18th and 19th centuries. Forced to surrender to George Washington at Yorktown in 1781, Cornwallis later served as governor-general of India where he worked to reform British colonial administration.
Photo Gallery: Selected Union Generals of the Civil War
The Union Army employed hundreds of generals during the Civil War. This gallery provides an overview of several of the key Union generals who contributed to the Union's cause and helped guide its armies to victory.
Photo Gallery: Selected Confederate Generals of the Civil War
The Confederate Army employed hundreds of generals during the Civil War. This gallery provides an overview of several of the key Confederate generals who contributed to the Southern cause and helped guide its armies throughout the war.
World War I: General John J. Pershing
A pivotal leader of the US Army in the early 20th century, General John J. Pershing was the leader of US forces in Europe during World War I and was a mentor for many of the generals of World War II. In addition, John J. Pershing was the only leader to achieve the rank of General of the Armies.
Vietnam War: Vo Nguyen Giap
A prominent Vietnamese general and statesman, Vo Nguyen Giap led the Viet Minh during the First Indochina War against France and masterminded the capture of Dien Bien Phu in 1954. During the Vietnam War, Vo Nguyen Giap served as commander-in-chief of the People's Army of Vietnam and planned the Tet Offensive.
Leonidas of Sparta
Our Guide to Ancient/Classical History provides a detailed biography of the famed Spartan king and chronicles his defense of Thermopylae.