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People of the Civil War

Leading the Armies

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People of the Civil War

General George H. Thomas, USA

Photograph Courtesy of the National Archives & Records Administration

Civil War People: Drawn from Across the Nation

The Civil War was the first conflict that saw the large scale mobilization of the American people. While over 2.2 million served the Union cause, between 1.2 and 1.4 million enlisted in Confederate service. These men were led by officers from a variety of backgrounds ranging from professionally-trained West Pointers to businessmen and political appointees. While many professional officers did leave the US Army to serve the South, the majority remained loyal to the Union. As the war began, the Confederacy benefited from several gifted leaders, while the North endured a string of poor commanders. In time, these men were replaced by skilled men who would lead the Union to victory.

Civil War Leaders: Union

Photo Gallery: Union Generals

Union Commanders at the Battle of Gettysburg

Major General Nathaniel P. Banks - Commander, Department of the Shenandoah (1861-1862), Commander, Department of the Gulf (1862-1865)

Major General Francis C. Barlow - Division commander, IX Corps (1863), Division commander, II Corps (1864-1865)

Major General Don Carlos Buell - Commander, Army of the Ohio (1861-1862)

Major General John Buford - Cavalry officer, Army of the Potomac (1862-1863)

Major General Ambrose Burnside - Commander, Army of the Potomac (1862-1863)

Major General Benjamin F. Butler - Commander, New Orleans (1862), Commander, Army of the James (1863-1865)

Major General Edward R.S. Canby - Commander, Department of New Mexico (1861-1862), Commander, Military Division of Western Mississippi (1864-1865)

Major General Joshua L. Chamberlain - Professor-turned-soldier, Commander, 20th Maine Infantry at Gettysburg

Major General Abner Doubleday - Possible inventor of baseball

Rear Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont - Commander, South Atlantic Blockading Squadron (1861-1863)

Admiral David G. Farragut - Commander, West Gulf Blockading Squadron

Major General John C. Frémont, Commander, Department of the West (1861), Mountain Department (1862)

Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant - General-in-Chief, Union Army

Major General Benjamin Grierson - Union Cavalry commander

Major General Henry W. Halleck - Union General-in-Chief, 1862-1864

Major General Winfield Scott Hancock - Commander, II Corps, Army of the Potomac (1863-1864)

Major General Joseph Hooker - Commander, Army of the Potomac (1863)

Major General Oliver O. Howard - Commander, XI Corps (1863-1864), Commander, IV Corps (1864), Commander, Army of the Tennessee (1864-1865)

Major General Andrew A. Humphreys - Commander, II Corps (1864-1865)

Major General Philip Kearny, Jr. - Division Commander, Army of the Potomac (1862)

Major General George B. McClellan - Commander, Army of the Potomac (1861-1862)

Major General John McClernand - Commander, XIII Corps (1863)

Major General Irvin McDowell - Commander, Army of Northeastern Virginia (1861)

Major General James B. McPherson - Commander, XVII Corps (1862-1864), Commander, Army of the Tennessee (1864), killed at the Battle of Atlanta

Major General George G. Meade - Commander, Army of the Potomac (1863-1865)

Major General Wesley Merritt - Noted cavalry general who later served in the Spanish-American War

Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles - Brigade/Division commander, Army of the Potomac, later captured Geronimo

Major General Alfred Pleasonton - Commander, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac (1863-1864)

Major General John Pope - Commander, Army of Virginia (1862)

Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter - Commander, Mississippi River Squadron, North Atlantic Blockading Squadron

Major General Fitz John Porter - Commander, V Corps (1862)

Major General John F. Reynolds - Commander, I Corps (1862-1863)

Major General William S. Rosecrans - Commander, Army of the Cumberland (1862-1863)

Major General John Sedgwick - Commander, VI Corps, Army of the Potomac

Colonel Robert Gould Shaw - Commander, 54th Massachusetts Infantry (first African-American regiment)

General Philip H. Sheridan - Commander, Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac (1864-1865) & Commander, Army of the Shenandoah (1864)

General William T. Sherman - Commander, Military Division of the Mississippi (1864-1865)

Major General Daniel Sickles - Commander, III Corps (1863) at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg

Major General Henry Slocum - Commander, XII Corps (1862-1863), Commander, Army of Georgia (1864-1865)

Major General Edwin V. Sumner - Commander, Right Grand Division (1862-1863), Commander, II Corps (1862)

Major General George Sykes - Commander, V Corps (1863-1864)

Major General George H. Thomas - "The Rock of Chickamauga" & Commander, Army of the Cumberland (1864-1865)

Major General Gouverneur K. Warren - Commander, II Corps (1863), V Corps (1864-1865)

Major General John Wool - Commander, Department of Virginia (1861-1862), Commander, Department of the East, (1862-1863)

Civil War Leaders: Confederate

Photo Gallery: Confederate Generals

Confederate Commanders at the Battle of Gettysburg

Brigadier General Lewis A. Armistead - Brigade Commander, (1862-1863), Army of Northern Virginia

General P.G.T. Beauregard - Commander, Charleston (1861, 1862-1864), Commander, Army of Mississippi (1862), Commander, Department of the West (1864-1865)

General Braxton Bragg - Commander, Army of Tennessee (1862-1863)

Major General Patrick Cleburne - Division Commander, Army of the Tennessee (1862-1865)

Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early - Commander, Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (1864-1865)

Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell - Commander, Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (1863-1864)

Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest - Noted Confederate cavalry commander

Major General John B. Gordon - Commander, Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia (1864-1865)

Lieutenant General Ambrose Powell Hill - Commander, Third Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

Major General Daniel H. Hill - Division Commander, Army of Northern Virginia (1862-1863), Corps Commander, Army of Tennessee (1863)

General John Bell Hood - Commander, Army of Tennessee (1864-1865)

Lieutenant General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson - Commander, Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

General Albert Sidney Johnston - Commander, Western Department (1861-1862)

General Joseph E. Johnston - Commander, Army of Northern Virginia (1861-1862), Commander, Department of the West (1863), Commander, Army of Tennessee (1863-1864)

General Robert E. Lee - Commander, Army of Northern Virginia (1862-1865)

Lieutenant General James Longstreet - Commander, First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

Brigadier General John Hunt Morgan - noted Confederate raider (1861-1864)

Colonel John Singleton Mosby - noted Confederate raider (1861-1865)

Lieutenant General John C. Pemberton - commander at Vicksburg (1862-1863)

Major General George Pickett - Division Commander, Army of Northern Virginia

Major General Sterling Price - Commander, Missouri State Guard (1861-1862), Commander, Army of the West (1862) 

General Edmund Kirby Smith - Commander, Trans-Mississippi Department (1863-1865)

Rear Admiral Raphael Semmes - Captain, CSS Alabama (1862-1864)

Major General J.E.B. Stuart - Commander, Cavalry Corps, Army of Northern Virginia

Lieutenant General Richard Taylor - Commander, District of Western Louisiana (1862-1864), Commander, Department of Alabama, Mississippi, & Eastern Louisiana (1864-1865)

Major General Earl Van Dorn - Commander, Trans-Mississippi District (1861-1862), Cavalry commander, Army of Tennessee (1863)

Major General Joseph Wheeler - Commander, Cavalry Corp, Army of Tennessee

 

 

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