Battle of Moscow - Conflict & Dates:
The Battle of Moscow was fought October 2, 1941 to January 7, 1942, during World War II (1939-1945).
Armies & Commanders
Battle of Moscow - Background:
On June 22, 1941, German forces launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union. Opening the Eastern Front, they quickly overwhelmed Soviet forces and made large gains. Driving east, Field Marshal Fedor von Bock's Army Group Center won the Battle of Białystok-Minsk in June, shattering the Soviet Western Front. Crossing the Dnieper River, the Germans began a protracted battle for Smolensk. Encircling the defenders, Bock was delayed into September before he could resume his advance. Though the road to Moscow was largely open, Bock was forced to order forces south to aid in the capture of Kiev.
Among those directed against Kiev was Colonel General Heinz Guderian's Panzergruppe 2. Believing that Moscow was more important, Guderian protested the decision, but was overruled. By supporting Army Group South's Kiev operations, Bock's timetable was further delayed. As a result, it was not until October 2, with the fall rains setting in, that Army Group Center was able to launch Operation Typhoon. The codename for Bock's Moscow offensive, the goal of Operation Typhoon was to capture the Soviet capital before the harsh Russian winter began (Map).
Battle of Moscow - Bock's Plan:
The plans for Operation Typhoon called for a double-pincer movement against the Soviet Western and Reserve Fronts near Vyazma while a second force moved to capture Bryansk to the south. With the success of these maneuvers, German forces would advance to encircle Moscow and hopefully compel Soviet leader Joseph Stalin to make peace. Though reasonably sound on paper, the plans for Operation Typhoon failed to account for the fact that German forces were battered after several months of campaigning and that their supply lines were having difficulty getting goods to the front.
Battle of Moscow - Soviet Preparations:
Aware of the threat to Moscow, the Soviets began constructing a series of defensive lines in front of the city. The first of these stretched between Rzhev, Vyazma, and Bryansk, while a second, double-line was built between Kalinin and Kaluga and dubbed the Mozhaisk defense line. To protect Moscow proper, the capital's citizens were drafted to construct three lines of fortifications around the city. While Soviet manpower was initially stretched thin, additional reinforcements were being brought west from the Far East as intelligence suggested that Japan did not pose an immediate threat.
Battle of Moscow - Early German Successes:
Storming forward, two German panzer groups quickly made gains near Vyazma and encircled four Soviet armies on October 10. Rather than surrendering, the Soviet 19th, 20th, 24th, and 32nd Armies tenaciously continued the fight, slowing the German advance and forcing Bock to divert troops to aid in reducing the pocket. This allowed the remnants of the Western and Reserve Fronts to fall back to the Mozhaisk defense line and for reinforcements to be rushed forward. To the south, Guderian's panzers rapidly encircled the entire Bryansk Front. Linking with the German 2nd Army, they captured Orel and Bryansk by October 6.
As in the north, the encircled Soviet forces, 3rd and 13th Armies, continued the fight and eventually escaped east. On October 7, the first snow of the season fell. This soon melted, turning the roads to mud and severely hampering German operations. Grinding forward, Bock's troops turned back numerous Soviet counterattacks and reached the Mozhaisk defenses on October 10. That same day, Stalin recalled Marshal Georgy Zhukov from the Siege of Leningrad and directed him to oversee the defense of Moscow. Assuming command, he focused Soviet manpower in the Mozhaisk line.
Battle of Moscow - Wearing Down the Germans:
Outnumbered, Zhukov deployed his men at key points in the line at Volokolamsk, Mozhaisk, Maloyaroslavets, and Kaluga. Resuming his advance on October 13, Bock sought to avoid the bulk of the Soviet defenses by moving against Kalinin in the north and Kaluga and Tula in the south. While the first two fell quickly, the Soviets succeeded in holding Tula. After frontal attacks captured Mozhaisk and Maloyaroslavets on the 18th and subsequent German advances, Zhukov was forced to fall back behind the Nara River. Though the Germans made gains, their forces were badly worn down and were plagued by logistical issues.
While German troops lacked appropriate winter clothing, they also took losses to the new T-34 tank which was superior to their Panzer IVs. By November 15, the ground had frozen and mud ceased to be an issue. Seeking to end the campaign, Bock directed 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies to encircle Moscow from the north, while Guderian moved around the city from the south. Rolling forward, German forces were slowed by the Soviet defenses but succeeded in taking Klin on 24th and four days later crossed the Moscow-Volga Canal before being pushed back. In the south, Guderian bypassed Tula and took Stalinogorsk on November 22.
Pushing onward, his offensive was checked by the Soviets near Kashira a few days later. With both prongs of his pincer movement bogged down, Bock launched a frontal assault at Naro-Fominsk on December 1. After four days of heavy fighting, it was defeated. On December 2, a German reconnaissance unit reached Khimki only five miles from Moscow. This marked the furthest German advance. With temperatures reaching -50 degrees, and still lacking winter equipment, the Germans were forced to halt their offensives.
Battle of Moscow - Soviets Strike Back
By December 5, Zhukov had been heavily reinforced by divisions from Siberia and the Far East. Possessing a reserve of 58 divisions, he unleashed a counter-offensive to push the Germans back from Moscow. The beginning of the attack coincided with Adolf Hitler ordering German forces to assume a defensive stance. Unable to organize a solid defense in their advance positions, the Germans were forced from Kalinin on the 7th and the Soviets moved to envelop the 3rd Panzer Army at Klin. This failed and the Soviets advanced on Rzhev. In the south, Soviet forces relieved pressure on Tula on December 16. Two days later, Bock was sacked in favor of Field Marshal Günther von Kluge. This was largely due to Hitler's anger over German troops conducting a strategic retreat against his wishes (Map).
The Russians were aided in their efforts by extreme cold and poor weather which minimized the Luftwaffe's operations. As the weather improved in late December and early January the Luftwaffe began intensive bombing in support of German ground forces This slowed the enemy advances and by January 7, the Soviet counter-offensive came to an end. In the course of the fighting, Zhukov succeeded in pushing the Germans 60 to 160 miles from Moscow.