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Having won a series of victories through the summer of 1643, King Charles I (right) laid siege to the Parliamentarian garrison at Gloucester in August.  Reacting, the Earl of Essex arrived with a Parliamentarian army on September 5 and forced Charles to break off the siege.  Though the city was saved, Essex was unable to maintain his supply lines and began retreating towards London.  Blocked at Newbury by Charles, Essex attacked on September 20 at the First Battle of Newbury.  Capturing Round Hill early in the morning, his men beat off Royalist attacks through the day.  By nightfall, the battle remained a stalemate.  Though Essex expected fighting to resume the next morning, Charles withdrew during the night as the Royalist gunpowder supplies were nearly exhausted.  This allowed Essex to continue his retreat and he reached London later in the month.  A high water mark for the Royalist cause, Charles' battlefield fortunes plummeted in the months and years after First Newbury.

English Civil War:

Photograph Source: Public Domain

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